Established Series


The Tamford series is a member montmorillonitic, thermic family of Udic Chromusterts. These soils have reddish gray clay loam A1 horizons, reddish brown clay AC horizons, and red calcareous clay
C horizons

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, thermic Chromic Udic Haplusterts

TYPICAL PEDON: Tamford clay loam - rangeland.

(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise

A1-- 0-6 inches, reddish gray (5YR 5/2) clay loam, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) moist; weak fine blocky structure; very
hard, very firm, slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (4 to 16
inches thick)

AC1-- 6-30, reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) clay, dark reddish brown (2.5YR 3/4) moist; weak coarse b+ocky structure; extremely hard, extremely firm; co*mon intersecting slickensides; few soft masses
and concretions of calcium carbonate; reddish gray (5YR 5/2) soil material in some vertical cracks; moderately alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary. (6 to 37 inches thick)

AC2-- 30-54 inches, reddish brown (2.5YR 5?4) clay, reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4) moist? weak coarse blocky structure; extremely hard, extremely firm; few intersecting slickensides; about 5
percent by volume of soft masses and concretions of calcium carbonate; calca*eous; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy bu*dary.
(0 to 28 i

ches thick)

C-- 54-72 inches, red (10R 5/6) clay, red (10R </6)
moist; mass*ve; extremely hard, ext*remely fyrm; about 5 percent
by volume of white (5YR 8/1) soft sandstone and red (10YR 5/6)
soft shale fragments less than 3 inches diameter; calcareous; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Carter County, Oklahoma; about 0.5 mile west and
1.0 mile south of the Zaneis School; 200 feet north and 70 feet
west of the southwest corner of sec. 33, T. 4 S., R. 3 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 60 inches to interbedded weathered shales and clay. Intersecting slickensides occur at depths ranging from 5 to 40 inches. The
soil, if undisturbed, has microlows and microhighs that extend up
and down the slope. Distance between center of the microhigh and center of microlow is 5 to 12 feet. When dry, this soil has
cracks 1 to 5 cm. in width at a depth of 20 inches.

The A1 horizon is brown or dark brown (7.5YR 4/2, 5/2) reddish
brown (5YR 5/3, 4/3), reddish gray (5YR 5/2), or dark reddish
gray (5YR 4/2). The upper 12 inches or more in 51 percent or more
of each pedon has moist values of 3 and dry values of 4 or 5. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline and is noncalcareous or calcareous. Texture is clay loam, silty clay
loam, or clay with a c*ay content ranging fro 35 to 45 percent.

The AC horizon is brown or dark brown (7.5YR 4/2, 5/2), reddish
brown (2.5YR 5/4, 4/4; 5YR 5/4), or +ight reddish brown (5YR 6/4). Some pedo*s have few to common brownish or reddish mottles in the
AC horizons. Clay content ranges from 40 to 50 percent. Reaction
is mildly alkaline or moderately alkali

e a

d ca+careous in at least the lower part.

The C horizon is reddish brown (5YR 5/3)< red (10R 5/69, r light reddish brown (5YR 6/3, 6/4) clay. Some pedons have few to common brownish or yelloish mottles. Calcium carbonate concretions ra

ge from 1 to 10 percent by volume in the AC and C horizons.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Anhalt,
Bonita, Branyon, Burleson, Clarita, Crawford, Dalco, Ferris,
Heyden, Houston Black, Indiahoma, Leeray, Leson, Luling, Paramore, Randall, Rimrock, San Saba, Stamford, Tobosa, and Watonga series. Anhalt soils have very-fine control sections. Bonita, Leeray, Paramore, Rimrock, Stamford, Tobosa, and Indiahoma soils are dry
for longer periods of time in the moisture control section.
Branyon, Burleson, Clarita, Dalco, Houston Black, Leson, Randall,
San Saba, and Wato

ga soils ha*e chro*a f 1 or less in at +east the upper 12 inches
yn more than half of each pedon. Crawford soils have sola of 20
to 40 inches over bedrock. Ferris, Heiden, and Luling soils have hues of 10YR or yellower throughout.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Tamford soils are gently sloping through strongly sloping uplands. Slope gradients range from 3 to 12 percent.
These soils formed in residuum from weakly consolidated shales or massive clays of Permian Age. The climate is subhumid or moist subhumid. Average annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 40
inches; mean annual temperature ranges from 58 degrees to 65
degrees F.; and the Thornthwaite annual P-E index ranges from 44
to 64.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Chickasha, Renfrow, and Zaneis series. Chickasha and Zaneis soils have less than 35
percent clay throughout the solum. Renfrow sils have solums more than 60 inches thick.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium to rapid ru

off; very slow permeabili+y. Infiltration is rapid when the soil
is dry and cracked, but very slow when the soil is moist.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used ?ostly for native range. Native
vegetation is tall and mid grass prairie.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: South central Oklahoma and possibly
north central Texas. The series is of moderate extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Carter County, Oklahoma; 1975.

REMARKS: The Tamford soils were formerly included with the
Staoford and Vernon soils and classified in the Grumusol great
soil group.

Cooperative Soil Survey U. S. A.