LOCATION WAKEVILLE NYEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-silty, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts
TYPICAL PEDON: Wakeville silt loam, on a 1 percent slope in a cultivated field. (colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)
Ap-- 0 to 7 inches, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; moderate fine and medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick.)
Bw-- 7 to 12 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; neutral; common fine pores; clear wavy boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick.)
Bg1-- 12 to 26 inches, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; common fine pores; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) on all faces of peds; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation and faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) areas of iron depletion in the matrix; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Bg2-- 26 to 42 inches, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine pores; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) on all faces of peds; common medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of iron accumulation and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) areas of iron depletion within the matrix; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bg horizon is 16 to 37 inches.)
Cg-- 42 to 72 inches, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; massive; friable; slightly alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Chautauqua County, New York, Town of Kiantone, 500 feet west of US Rt. 62 and NY Rt. 60; 50 feet south of NY Rt. 60. USGS Jamestown, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 42 degrees, 03 minutes, 16 seconds N. and Longitude 79 degrees, 11 minutes, 45 seconds W. NAD 1927.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 24 to 45 inches. Rock fragments generally are less than 5 percent in the surface layer and subsoil but range to 20 percent in the substratum and up to 45 percent below 40 inches. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral to a depth of 40 inches and from moderately acid to moderately alkaline below 40 inches.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture is silt loam or very fine sandy loam. Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 2 to 5 inches thick.
The Bw horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 3 through 6. The texture is very fine sandy loam or silt loam. Structure is fine or medium subangular blocky or granular.
The Bg horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is silt loam or very fine sandy loam. Structure is subangular blocky or granular.
The Cg or C horizon has hue of 7.5YR through 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 through 4. The texture is silt loam, loam, or very fine sandy loam above 40 inches, and ranges to fine sandy loam or loamy sand below 40 inches in the fine earth fraction. The horizon is massive, or has plate like divisions. Consistence is very friable to firm.
Some pedons have a 2C horizon below 40 inches with hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 1 through 4. Texture ranges from loam to loamy sand in the fine earth fraction. Some pedons have strata of fine sand or sand below 40 inches. The horizon is massive. Consistence is very friable or friable.
COMPETING SERIES: The Limerick series is the only soil in the same family. Limerick soils are poorly drained, and do not have a Bw horizon in the upper subsoil.
The Holderton, Maplehill, Raypol, Raynham, Wakeland, Wayland, and Wyalusing series are similar soils in related families. Holderton soils have a coarse-loamy particle-size control section. Maplehill soils have a buried dark colored A horizon within a depth of 36 inches. Raynham soils occur outside the flood plain in older lacustrine deposits. Raypol and Wyalusing soils are coarse-silty over sandy or sandy-skeletal. The Wakeland soils have an AC profile lacking a developed subsoil, are more acid in the substratum, and occur in areas of higher air temperatures. Wayland soils are fine-silty in the particle-size control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Wakeville soils are level and nearly level soils on flood plains along low gradient streams. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent. The soils formed in recent alluvium derived from upland glacial drift predominantly of shale, siltstone and sandstone origin with some limestone. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 45 inches; mean annual air temperature ranges from 46 to 50 degrees F.; and the growing season ranges from 110 to 150 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Wakeville soils are the somewhat poorly drained member of a drainage sequence which includes the well drained Hamlin, moderately well drained Teel and poorly and very poorly drained Wayland soils. Allard, Howard and Valois soils are on gravelly, higher adjacent terraces. Langford, Erie, Chautauqua and Busti soils are till soils on higher surrounding landscapes. Swormsville soils occupy similar lowland positions but have a higher clay content in the subsoil.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is very low to very high. Permeability is moderate throughout the soil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0.5 to 1.5 feet below the surface from November to May.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of this soil are in, corn, small grains, hay and pasture. Native vegetation is mixed hardwoods including red maple, sugar maple, white ash, walnut and Eastern hemlock.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southwestern and South Central New York. MLRA's 101, 139, and 140. The series is moderately extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Chautauqua County, New York 1988.
REMARKS: Wakeville series is proposed for the somewhat poorly drained soils previously included with Teel series. The Teel series is now restricted to moderately well drained.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in the typical pedon are:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 7 inches (Ap horizon).
2. Irregular decrease in organic carbon with depth and is greater than 0.2 percent within 1.25 meters.
3. An aquic moisture regime - evidenced by low chroma matrix colors and redoximorphic features in the Bg horizons
4. Particle-size control section from 10 to 40 inches that is coarse-silty weighted average.