LOCATION WALUM NDEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, mixed, frigid Oxyaquic Hapludolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Walum sandy loam - on an east-facing plane slope of 1 percent under cropland. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated. When described the soil was moist throughout.)
Ap--0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; moderate medium subangular blocky structure parting to moderate fine granular; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; many fine roots; many fine pores; few small pebbles; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick)
Bw1--6 to 16 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) redoximorphic concentrations; moderate coarse and medium prismatic structure parting to moderate coarse and medium subangular blocky; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common fine roots; common fine pores; faint very dark gray (10YR 3/1) organic stains on faces of peds; tongues of A horizon extend as much as 6 inches into this horizon; few shale channers; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (5 to 15 inches thick)
2Bw2--16 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) loamy sand, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and few fine black (10YR 2/1) redoximorphic concentrations; weak coarse prismatic and subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; few fine roots; few shale channers; about 90 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction; slight effervescence; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick)
2Bk1--24 to 30 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) loamy sand, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak coarse prismatic structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine roots; few shale channers; about 80 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction; few masses of carbonates; violent effervescence; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
2Bk2--30 to 40 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sand, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; single grain; few shale channers; about 70 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction; few soft masses of carbonates; strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (Combined Bk horizons 6 to 20 inches thick)
2C--40 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2), light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) and grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) stratified coarse sand and sand, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) and dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; single grain; about 10 percent gravel; about 20 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction; thin coats of carbonates on undersides of pebbles; slight effervescence; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Eddy County, North Dakota; about 4 miles north and 2 1/2 miles east of New Rockford; 2,490 feet north and 2,140 feet west of the southeast corner, sec. 11, T. 149 N., R. 65 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The depth to sand and gravel typically is 14 to 20 inches, but ranges from 10 to 25 inches. The 2Bw, 2Bk and 2C horizons within the 10- to 40-inch control section contain more than 20 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4 and 2 or 3 moist, and chroma of 1. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam or coarse sandy loam. It is neutral.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6 and 2 to 4 moist, and chroma of 1 to 3. It commonly is sandy loam, but some is coarse sandy loam or fine sandy loam. It is neutral. The Bw horizon has few to many faint or distinct redoximorphic features. It has weak or moderate prismatic structure parting to angular or subangular blocky structure. A few faint clay films and organic stains coat the faces of peds in some pedons. The 2Bw horizon, where present, is loamy sand or gravelly sandy loam.
The 2Bk horizon has hue of 2.5 or 5Y, value of 6 or 7 and 4 to 6 moist, and chroma of 1 to 4. It commonly is loamy sand or sand, but some pedons contain strata of coarse sandy loam or sandy loam. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline.
The 2C horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5 to 7 and 4 or 5 moist, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or coarse sand containing 5 to 50 percent gravel. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Crossbedding and stratification are common in the 2Bw, 2Bk, and 2C horizons.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Duelm, Falsen, Flaming, Hecla, Osakis and Radium series. All the competing soils formed in sandy material containing less than 20 percent shale in the 0.1 to 76 mm fraction.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Walum soils are on level and nearly level outwash plains. Slope gradients are 0 to 3 percent. The soils formed in glaciofluvial sand and gravel containing appreciable amounts of shale. The climate is cool, subhumid. The mean annual temperature ranges from 38 to 43 degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation from about 16 to 20 inches. Most of the moisture falls during spring and summer.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Osakis soils and the Binford, Brantford, Divide, Kensal, Renshaw, Tolna and Warsing soils. Binford, Brantford and Renshaw soils are on slightly higher positions. Binford soils do not have redoximorphic depletions with chroma of 2 or less within depths of 40 inches. Brantford and Renshaw soils are fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal. Divide and Tolna soils are in slightly lower positions in swales and depressions. Divide soils have a calcic horizon within depths of 16 inches. Tolna soils are coarse-loamy. Kensal, Osakis and Warsing soils are on the same positions in the landscape as Walum soils. Kensal and Warsing soils are fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-skeletal.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Moderately well drained. Runoff is slow. Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part and rapid or very rapid in the lower part. A seasonal high water table is at depths of 2.5 to 5 feet at some time during the period of April through June.
USE AND VEGETATION: Soils are cropped to small grains, hay and pasture. Native vegetation is needleandthread, prairie sandreed and a variety of forbs and sedges.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: East-central North Dakota. The series is of small extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Eddy County, North Dakota, 1971.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 16 inches (Ap and Bw1 horizons).
The classification was changed to the Oxyaquic subgroup even though the morphology of this pedon may meet the Aquic subgroup criteria because it was felt Oxyaquic better fit the water state of the series. A different pedon may need to be selected to represent the series. 01/2000.