LOCATION WICHITA                 TX

Established Series


The Wichita series consists of very deep, well drained, moderately slowly permeable soils that formed in calcareous loamy and clayey alluvium. These soils are on nearly level to gently sloping uplands. Slopes are mainly 0 to 1 percent but range from 0 to 5 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 686 mm (27 in) and the mean annual temperature is about 17 degrees C (63 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, superactive, thermic Typic Paleustalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Wichita clay loam--cultivated. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 in); reddish brown (5YR 5/4) clay loam, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) moist; weak fine granular structure; hard, friable; common fine roots; few fine water-worn pebbles of quartz; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. (Thickness is 13 to 25 cm [5 to 10 in])

A--18 to 25 cm (7 to 10 in); reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay loam, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) moist; weak fine granular structure; very hard, friable; common fine roots; few fine pebbles of quartz; neutral; clear smooth boundary. (Thickness is 5 to 13 cm [2 to 5 in])

Bt1--25 to 56 cm (10 to 22 in); reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay loam, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) moist; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; very hard, firm; common fine roots; common fine pores; few distinct clay films on all faces of peds; common wormcasts; few fine pebbles of quartz; slightly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. (Thickness is 20 to 41 cm [8 to 16 in])

Bt2--56 to 107 cm (22 to 42 in); reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay loam; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) moist; moderate medium angular blocky structure; very hard, firm, few fine roots; few fine pores; few distinct clay films on all faces of peds; few wormcasts; few soft masses of calcium carbonate; few fine quartz pebbles; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (Thickness is 25 to 61 cm [10 to 24 in])

Btk--107 to 168 cm (42 to 66 in); yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay loam, yellowish red (5YR 4/6) moist; weak medium angular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable; few fine roots; few faint clay films on surfaces along pores; 10 percent concretions and masses of calcium carbonate; few fine quartz pebbles; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. (Thickness 20 to 71 [8 to 28 in])

C--168 to 188 cm (66 to 74 in); red (2.5YR 4/6) clay loam, dark red (2.5YR 3/6) moist; massive; hard, friable; 2 percent films, threads and masses of calcium carbonate; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Wilbarger County, Texas; about 50 yards east of U. S. Highway 283, 5.6 miles south of Wilbarger County Courthouse in Vernon. USGS topographic quadrangle: Lockett, TX; Latitude: 34 degrees, 4 minutes, 29.85 seconds N; Longitude: 99 degrees, 15 minutes, 52.01 seconds W; WGS 84.

Soil moisture: Typic-ustic soil moisture regime
Mean annual soil temperature: 17 degrees C (63 degrees F)

Particle-size control section (weighted average)
Clay content: 22 to 45 percent
Sand content: 15 to 45 percent
Rock fragments: 0 to 6 percent gravel

A horizon
Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
Value: 4 to 6 dry, 3.5 moist
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture is loam, silt loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam
Reaction: neutral or slightly alkaline.

Bt horizon
Hue: 2.5YR, 5YR, or 7.5YR,
value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: clay loam, clay or silty clay
Identifiable secondary carbonate: 5 to 20 percent
Reaction: neutral to moderately alkaline

C horizon
Hue: 2.5YR, 5YR, 7.5YR, 10YR
Value: 4 to 5 dry, 3 to 4 moist
Chroma: 1 to 6 dry, 3 to 6 moist
Texture: clay loam, clay, or silty clay. Stratified loam and fine sandy loam
Identifiable secondary carbonates: 0 to 5 percent

COMPETING SERIES: Current competitors are the Castell, Hamby, Pedernales , Shatruce , Voca , Weswind , and Winters series. Similar soils are the Abilene, Frankirk, Kamay, Rotan, Sagerton, Tillman, and Truce series.

Abilene, Frankirk, Rotan, Sagerton, and Tillman soils: have a mollic epipedon.
Castell soils: are 51 to 101 cm (20 to 40 in) to soft gneiss bedrock.
Hamby soils: do not have secondary carbonate within 127 cm (50 in) of the surface.
Kamay soils: have an abrupt textural change between the A and Bt horizons.
Pedernales and Winters soils: have secondary carbonates below 76 cm (30 in)thick.
Shatruce soils have solumn less than 102 cm (40 in) thick.
Truce soils do not have visible secondary carbonates within 76 cm (30 in) of the surface and have sola 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 in) thick.
Voca soils: have a paralithic contact of granite between 102 to 152 cm (40 and 60 in) thick.
Weswind soils: have solumn 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 in) thick and do not have secondary carbonates above 30 inches. Winters soils have secondary carbonates below 102 cm (40 in).

Parent material: calcareous loamy and clayey alluvium
Landscape: Dissected plains
Landform: Terraces
Slope: 0 to 5 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 559 to 813 mm (22 to 32 in)
Thornthwaite P-E indices: 32 to 46
Mean annual air temperature: 16 to 18 degrees C (61 to 64 degrees F)
Frost-free period: 210 to 240 days
Elevation: 335 to640 meters (1,100 to 2,100 feet)

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Frankirk, Kamay, Sagerton, and Tillman series and the Carey, Miles, and St. Paul series. The competing series occupy positions similar to the Wichita series.
Carey soils: have a mollic epipedon and are developed in nearby silty redbeds.
Miles soils: have fine loamy control sections and are on slightly higher positions.
St. Paul soils: have mollic epipedons and are in plane to weakly concave areas.

Drainage class: Well
Permeability: moderately slow.
Runoff is negligible on slopes less than 1 percent, very low on 1 to 3 percent slopes, and low on 3 to 5 percent slopes.

Major uses: cultivated; cotton, sorghums, and small grain are the main crop.
Native Vegetation: short-grasses, mid-grasses and mesquite trees.
Ecological sites assigned to phases and components of this series are listed below. Current ecological site assignments are in Web Soil Survey. Components of this series include the following ecological sites: Clay loam

General location: Rolling Limestone Prairie and North Central Prairie of Texas and Southwestern Oklahoma. MLRA: 78C-Central Rolling Red Plains, Eastern Part, 78B-Central Rolling Red Plains, Western Part. Extent: Large


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Wichita County, Texas; 1924.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - 0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 in). (A horizons)
Argillic horizon - 25 to 167 cm (10 to 66 in). (Bt horizons)
Pale feature - the clay percentage does not decrease by as much as 20 percent at 60 inches depth where chroma is 6 and hue is 5YR.
Calcic horizon - 106 to 167 cm (42 to 66 in). (Btk horizon)

ADDITIONAL DATA: NSSL textural analysis on sample from Coleman Co., (10/64) 19606; and two from Stonewall Co., (7/69) 69L317 - 69L320. TAES characterization data on 1 sample from Knox Co., K591-597, and 1 sample from Haskell Co., K629-633.

Taxonomic Version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014

National Cooperative Soil Survey