Established Series


The Ashville series consists of very deep, poorly drained soils in upland depressions. They formed in a thin mantle of local colluvium and in some places the underlying till. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual temperature is 48 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 37 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, nonacid, mesic Typic Endoaquepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Ashville silt loam on a 1 percent slope in an idle field. (colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)

Ap--0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam light
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; moderate fine and medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick)

Bg1--9 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure: friable; many fine roots; light gray (10YR 6/1) ped faces; common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 5 percent gravel; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.

Bg2--12 to 21 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silt loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) ped faces; many medium distinct strong brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions in the matrix; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.

Bg3--21 to 36 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silt loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix and faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions in the matrix; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bg horizon is 19 to 39 inches.)

Cg--36 to 72 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) gravelly silt loam; massive; friable; 30 percent rock fragments; slightly acid.

TYPE LOCATION: Chautauqua County, New York, Town of North Harmony, one mile northwest of the Village of Ashville, 1200 ft. southwest of N.Y. 394 and Co. Rt. 83. USGS Panama, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 42 degrees, 6 minutes, 40 seconds N. and Longitude 79 degrees, 23 minutes, 35 seconds W., NAD 1927.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 25 to 45 inches. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments, mainly gravel and channers, range from 0 to 15 percent by volume in the solum, and from 10 to 50 percent in the substratum.

The Ap or A horizon has 2.5Y or 10YR hue, with value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 1 or 2. Dry value is 6 or 7. The texture is loam, very fine sandy loam or silt loam. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral.

Some pedons have a thin Eg horizon below the A horizon with value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 0 or 1.

The Bg horizon has hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is loam, silt loam or silty clay loam. High and low chroma mottles are few to many and faint or distinct. Structure is weak or moderate subangular blocky, or coarse or very coarse prismatic. Consistence is firm or friable. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral.

Some pedons have a 2B horizon that has color and structure similar to the B horizon, except rock fragment content is higher and fine earth texture can range to fine sandy loam.

The Cg horizon has hue and value similar to the B horizon and chroma of 1 through 4. The texture is silt loam, loam or fine sandy loam in the fine earth fraction. The material is massive or has weak or moderate plate-like divisions. Consistence is friable or firm. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to moderately alkaline.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series in the same family.

The Alden, Atherton, Canandaigua, Chippewa, Birdsall, Busti, Fremont, Hallenton, Halsey, Lyons, Parkhill, Patchin, Sun and Vincennes series are similar soils in related families. The Alden, Lyons and Parkhill soils have mollic epipedons and the Lyons and Parkhill soils also have carbonates within 40 inches. Atherton soils formed in water-sorted deposits and have a stratified C horizon. The Canandaigua and Birdsall soils have silty particle size control sections; Chippewa soils have a fragipan. The Busti and Fremont soils are somewhat poorly drained and have a zone in the upper part of the subsoil that has a high chroma matrix. Hallenton soils typically have thinner sola and have few rock fragments in the underlying material. The Halsey and Sun soils have coarse-loamy control sections. Patchin soils are moderately deep to bedrock and have a more acid profile. Vincennes soils formed in alluvium and have less than 5 percent rock fragment content in the subsoil and substratum.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Ashville soils are on nearly level parts and slight depressions of till plains. Slope is less than 3 percent. The soils formed in silty local colluvium and in some places in the underlying loamy till. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 30 to 45 inches; mean annual air temperature ranges from 46 to 50 degrees F; and mean growing season ranges from 110 to 150 days. The elevation of these soils is mostly from 1200 feet to 1900 feet.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Ashville soils are the poorly drained member of a drainage sequence which includes the moderately well drained Schuyler, the somewhat poorly drained Fremont and the very poorly drained Alden soils.
Chautauqua, Busti, Orpark, Towerville (proposed), and
Wayland soils are on nearby landscapes. Chautauqua and Busti are better drained and coarser textured associates; Orpark and Towerville soils have bedrock at depths of 20 to 40 inches; and Wayland soils are on nearby flood plains.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Poorly drained. the potential for surface runoff is intermittently ponded to low. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer, moderately slow in the subsoil, and moderately slow or slow in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Mostly wooded or brushland. Natural vegetation consists of red maple, Eastern hemlock, alder, dogwood, sedges and rushes. Some areas have been cleared, drained, and are used for growing hay or pasture.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Glaciated Allegheny Plateau of southwestern New York. MLRA 139 and 140. The series is moderately extensive.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Chautauqua County, New York, 1988.

REMARKS: This soil now classifies in the subgroup of Typic Endoaquepts. Competing series are expected to change as similar soils are reclassified.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in the typical pedon are:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 9 inches (Ap horizon).
2. Cambic horizon - the zone from 9 to 36 inches (Bg horizons).
3. Aquic moisture regime - evidenced by low chroma matrix colors and mottles in the Eg and Bg horizons.
4. Typic subgroup - evidenced by 60 percent low chroma in the matrix in all subhorizons to a depth of 30 inches.
5. Estimated CEC activity class as active from similar soils.

National Cooperative Soil Survey