LOCATION BEADLE SDEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, mesic Typic Argiustolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Beadle loam - on a convex slope of 1 percent in native range. When described, the soil was dry throughout. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)
A--0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loam, black (10YR 2/1) moist; weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to weak medium granular; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common fine and medium roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. (5 to 11 inches thick)
Bt1--7 to 14 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay loam, faces of peds are very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist, rubbed dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; common fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt2--14 to 17 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay, faces of peds are very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist, rubbed dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, firm, sticky and plastic; common fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined Bt horizons is 6 to 14 inches thick.)
Bk1--17 to 30 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few fine roots; many fine accumulations of calcium carbonate; strong effervescence; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Bk2--30 to 36 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and plastic; few fine roots; few fine accumulations of calcium carbonate; strong effervescence; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined Bk horizons is 4 to 28 inches thick.)
C--36 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) and grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) and dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; slight effervescence; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Beadle County, South Dakota; about 16 miles north and 1/2 mile east of Huron; 1100 feet west and 180 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 21, T. 113 N., R. 61 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to calcium carbonate typically is about 18 inches and ranges from 12 to 25 inches. The thickness of the mollic epipedon ranges from 8 to 20 inches and includes all or part of the Bt horizon. Some pedons contain up to 10 percent by volume of rock fragments throughout the soil.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4 and 2 or 3 moist, and chroma of 1 or 2. It typically is loam but is silt loam or clay loam in some pedons. It is slightly acid or neutral.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to 5 and 3 or 4 moist, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is clay or clay loam averaging between 35 and 45 percent clay. It is neutral or slightly alkaline. Dark tongues of A material extend into the Bt and Bk horizons on the vertical faces of peds in some pedons. Some pedons have a Btk horizon.
The Bk horizon has has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7 and 4 to 6 moist, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is clay loam or clay and contains common or many, fine or medium accumulations of calcium carbonate. It is slightly or moderately alkaline. Shale fragments are in the lower part of the Bk horizon in some pedons. Many or common nests of gypsum are in some pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5 to 7 and 4 to 6 moist, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is clay loam or clay. It is slightly or moderately alkaline. Few or common nests of gypsum are in some pedons. Mottles inherent to the parent material are common in the lower C horizons. Shale fragments are in the C horizon of some pedons.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Carlson, Harney, McClure, Mento, Peno, Raber, Reliance, and Spearville series in the same family. The Carlson soils formed in residuum weathered from chalk and limestone and old alluvium. The Harney, McClure, Mento, Reliance, and Spearville soils contain more silt in the solum and formed in silty sediments. In addition, McClure soils have contrasting clayey 2C horizons and the Mento soils have 5 to 15 percent sodium in the B and C horizons. Peno soils have thinner sola and have calcium carbonate at shallower depths. Raber soils have thinner A horizons and are drier.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Beadle soils are nearly level to sloping hills of uplands. Slope gradients typically are 0 to 6 percent and range from 0 to 9 percent. Surfaces are smooth, plane, or convex. These soils formed in clay loam glacial till. The mean annual air temperature ranges from 45 to 52 degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 17 to 26 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Dudley, Houdek, Jerauld, Prosper, Stickney, and Tetonka soils. The Dudley, Jerauld, and Stickney soils have natric horizons and are on nearly level, plane to slightly concave surfaces and are in slightly lower positions. Tetonka soils are in depressions and have E horizons. The Houdek and Prosper soils are fine-loamy. In addition, the Prosper soils have mollic epipedons more than 20 inches thick. Houdek soils are on similar landscape positions. The Prosper soils are on plane or slightly concave positions in upland swales and on foot slopes.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Surface runoff is negligible on nearly level areas and high on more sloping areas. Permeability is moderately slow or slow.
USE AND VEGETATION: When cultivated, small grain and alfalfa are the principal crops. Large acreages are used for rangeland. Native vegetation is mainly western wheatgrass, blue grama, green needlegrass, little bluestem, big bluestem, sedges, and forbs.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: East-central South Dakota. The series is extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Beadle County, South Dakota, 1920.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizon and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of about 17 inches (A, Bt1, Bt2 horizons); argillic horizon - zone from about 7 to 17 inches (Bt1, Bt2 horizons).