LOCATION HOUDEK SDEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiustolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Houdek loam - on a plane slope of 1 percent in cultivation. When described the soil was moist throughout. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loam, black (10YR 2/1) crushing to very dark brown (l0YR 2/2) moist; weak fine granular structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. (5 to 8 inches thick)
Bt1--6 to l0 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay loam, surfaces of peds very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), rubbed dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium and fine subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few pebbles; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2--10 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay loam, surfaces of peds dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), rubbed brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium and fine subangular blocky; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; few pebbles; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 9 to 16 inches.)
Bk1--18 to 28 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) clay loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/3) moist; weak medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium and fine subangular blocky; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few pebbles; few medium accumulations of carbonate; strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Bk2--28 to 40 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/3) clay loam, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) moist; common medium distinct relic mottles of dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) and common medium faint relic mottles of gray (2.5Y 6/1) moist; weak medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few pebbles; common medium accumulations of carbonate; strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; diffuse boundary. (Combined Bk horizons is 15 to 30 inches thick.)
C--40 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/3) clay loam, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) moist; few fine faint relic mottles of olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) and dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) moist; weak coarse blocky structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few pebbles; few fine accumulations of carbonate; few fine nests and striations of gypsum in the lower part; slight effervescence; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Davison County, South Dakota; about 8 miles west and 1 mile north of Ethan; 365 feet west and 1,185 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 9, 101 N., R. 61 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The depth to carbonates ranges from 14 to 24 inches. Thickness of the mollic epipedon ranges from 8 to 20 inches and includes all or part of the Bt horizon. The soil contains 0 to 10 percent by volume of coarse fragments as pebbles. Some pedons contain up to 20 percent by volume of stones throughout.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5 and 2 or 3 moist, and chroma of 1 or 2. It typically is loam or silt loam but is clay loam in some pedons. It is slightly acid or neutral.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6 and 3 to 5 moist, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is clay loam averaging between 27 and 35 percent clay. Some pedons have thin horizons that exceed 35 percent clay. It is neutral or slightly alkaline.
The Bk horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6 and 4 or 5 moist, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is clay loam or loam and is slightly or moderately alkaline. It contains few to many, fine or medium accumulations of carbonate.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 5 to 7 and 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is loam or clay loam and is slightly or moderately alkaline. It has few to many mottles inherent to the parent till. It has few or common accumulations of gypsum between depths of 40 and 60 inches in most pedons.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Glenham, Gosper, Ree, Reventon, Wewela, and Wineg series in the same family. Glenham soils have thinner sola, have free carbonates at shallower depths, and are slightly drier. Gosper soils formed in sandy alluvium and are moderately well drained. Ree soils formed in loamy alluvium and typically have a stratified substrata. Reventon soils have carbonates above a depth of 14 inches and receive less rainfall. Wewela soils have shale bedrock between depths of 22 and 30 inches. Wineg soils have calcic horizons.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Houdek soils are nearly level to rolling on very gently undulating to rolling glacial till plains. Surfaces are plane or convex, and slope gradients typically are less than 6 percent but range from 0 to 25 percent. The soils formed in friable, calcareous loam or clay loam glacial till. The mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 52 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 17 to 26 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Betts, Clarno, Dudley, Ethan, Prosper, Stickney, and Tetonka soils. Clarno soils have argillic horizons and are on similar upland positions. Prosper soils have a mollic epipedon more than 20 inches thick and are in upland swales and shallow drainageways. Betts soils do not have a mollic epipedon and are on ridgetops and more steeply sloping adjacent uplands. Ethan soils contain carbonates within depths of 10 inches, do not have an argillic horizon, and are on convex upper slopes in the landscape. Dudley and Stickney soils have a natric horizon and usually are on nearly level areas with microrelief. Tetonka soils have an A2 horizon, are fine textured and are in depressions and drainageways.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Runoff ranges from negigible to high depending on slopes. Permeability is moderate in the solum and moderately slow in the underlying glacial till.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cultivated. Small grain, corn, alfalfa, and feed grains are the principal crops. Native vegetation is big bluestem, little bluestem, western wheatgrass, green needlegrass, needleandthread, sideoats grama, blue grama, sedges, and forbs.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: East-central South Dakota. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Spink County, South Dakota, 1955.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of about 10 inches (Ap, Bt1 horizons); argillic horizon - the zone from about 6 to 18 inches (Bt, Bt2 horizons).