LOCATION COLVIN ND+MN MT SD
The Colvin series consists of very deep, poorly and very poorly drained, moderately to slowly permeable soils formed in silt loam and silty clay loam sediments. These soils are in concave shallow swales and depressions on glacial lake plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual air temperature is 41 degrees F and mean annual precipitation is 18 inches.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, frigid Typic Calciaquolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Colvin silty clay loam on a level concave slope less than 1 percent under native grass. When described the soil was moist throughout. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated)
A--0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium granular; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; many roots; many fine pores; strong effervescence; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. (6 to 16 inches thick)
Bkg1--10 to 20 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) and olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay loam, gray (N 6/0) and white (N 8/0) dry; very weak medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine granular; hard, friable, slightly sticky and plastic; common roots; common fine pores; few masses of carbonates; violent effervescence; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Bkg2--20 to 30 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) and olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay loam, light gray (5Y 7/1) and gray (5Y 6/1) dry; common medium prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) redoximorphic concentrations; very weak fine subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky and plastic; few roots; common pores; strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined Bkg horizons 8 to 54 inches thick)
Cg--30 to 60 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay loam, light gray (5Y 7/2) dry; many coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and few medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) redoximorphic concentrations; massive; hard, friable, sticky and plastic; strong effervescence in upper part, gradually decreases to slight effervescence at 50 inches; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: LaMoure County, North Dakota; about 1 mile south and 2 miles east of Marion; about 75 feet north and 65 feet east of the southwest corner, sec. 18, T. 136 N., R. 60 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The mollic epipedon ranges from 7 to 24 inches in thickness. The top of the calcic horizon is at depths of less than 16 inches. In some pedons the lower part of the mollic epipedon is part of the calcic horizon. The 10- to 40-inch particle-size control section typically has 20 to 30 percent noncarbonate clay and ranges from 18 to 35 percent. It contains less than 15 percent fine sand and coarser. Saline phases are recognized.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y or is neutral, value of 2 or 3 and 3 or 4 dry, and chroma of 1 or less. It typically is silt loam or silty clay loam, but the range includes clay loam and silty clay. It is neutral to moderately alkaline. Some pedons have an Ak or ABk horizon. Where present they have hue similar to the A horizon, and value of 3 or 4 and 4 to 6 dry, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The Bkg or Bk horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y or is neutral, value of 3 to 7 and 5 to 8 dry, and chroma of 2 or less. Chroma of 3 is allowed below a depth of 30 inches. It is silt loam or silty clay loam, but clay loam is allowed below a depth of 25 inches. It is slightly alkaline to strongly alkaline. It typically has a calcium carbonate equivalent of 20 to 50 percent. Some pedons have Bky, Bkz or BC horizons.
The Cg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 3 to 6 and 5 to 7 dry, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is silt loam or silty clay loam, but clay loam is allowed below a depth of 25 inches. The Cg horizon below depths of 40 inches typically has similar textures. However, in some pedons the texture ranges from sand to clay below a depth of 40 inches. The Cg horizon is massive, laminated or has weak grades of blocky structure. It typically contains few to many redoximorphic features with chroma of 3 to 8. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Crystals of gypsum and other soluble salts are in some pedons. Some pedons do not have a C horizon within a depth of 60 inches.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Winger series. Bear Lake soils have sola more than 60 inches thick and have lime nodules in the Bkg horizon. Colake soils do not have redoximorphic features within a depth of 40 inches. Ojata soils are strongly saline with conductivity exceeding 16 mmhos/cm. Regan soils contain more than 15 percent fine sand or coarser in the lower half of the control section. Winger soils have loamy glacial till in the lower part of the control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Colvin soils are in level concave shallow swales and depressions on glacial lake plains, in outwash channels, on stream terraces and in drainageways on till plains. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The soils formed in silt loam and silty clay loam sediments. The mean annual air temperature ranges from 36 to 48 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation from 15 to 25 inches. Frost-free period ranges from 90 to 145 days. Elevation ranges from 650 to 2000 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing
Ojata soils and
Rauville soils. Ojata soils are on nearby saline swales and depressions. Antler soils are on nearby interbeach areas. They are fine-loamy and have 2C horizons within depths of 20 to 40 inches of firm glacial till. Bearden, Overly and Perella soils are in a drainage sequence with Colvin soils. Bearden and Overly soils are on higher elevations. Overly soils have Bw horizons and do not have carbonates or calcic horizons within depths of 16 inches. Borup soils are on nearby lake plains where sediments contain less clay and more very fine sand. Hegne soils are on nearby lake plains where sediments are clays. Lamoure and Rauville soils are on nearby bottom lands and flood plains of outwash valleys and streams. Perella soils are on similar landscapes as Colvin soils. Perella soils do not have calcic horizons within depths of 16 inches.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Poorly and very poorly drained. Runoff ranges from negligible to medium depending on slope and surface texture. Water runs onto these soils and ponds for a time during wet seasons. The soils commonly are too wet to cultivate unless drained. Permeability is moderate to slow. An apparent seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0.5 to 1.5 feet at some time during the period of March through July in the poorly drained phase. It is at a depth of 1 foot above the surface to 1 foot below the surface at some time during the period of November through July in the very poorly drained phase.
USE AND VEGETATION: Where drained, these soils are cropped to small grains, potatoes, sugar beets, and corn. Undrained areas are used for pasture or hay or wildlife habitat. Native vegetation is slim sedge, wooly sedge, prairie cordgrass, and a variety of forbs and other sedges.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central and eastern North Dakota, western Minnesota and northeastern South Dakota. The soil is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Sargent County, North Dakota, 1961.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 10 inches (A horizon); calcic horizon - the zone from 10 to 30 inches (Bkg1 and Bkg2 horizon); characteristics associated with wetness - calcic horizon (Bkg1 and Bkg2 horizons).
ADDITIONAL DATA: S66NDak-14-2; S66NDak-14-7; S66NDak-14-8; S67NDak-50- 3; S67NDak-50-4.
National Cooperative Soil Survey