LOCATION EVARD SC+GA NC TN VA
MLS, MSH, BPS/ Rev. MDJ
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, parasesquic, mesic Typic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Evard sandy loam - forested. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise indicated.)
A--0 to 5 cm (0 to 2 inches); very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sandy loam, weak fine granular structure; very friable; nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine and few medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (5 to 18 cm thick; 2 to 7 inches).
E--5 to 13 cm (2 to 5 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine and few medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 15 cm thick; 0 to 6 inches)
Bt1--13 to 23 cm (5 to 9 inches); strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many fine and few medium roots; few distinct clay films on faces of some peds; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2--23 to 58 cm (9 to 29 inches); red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine and few medium roots; few distinct clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 30 to 71 cm; 12 to 28 inches.)
BC--58 to 94 cm (29 to 37 inches); red (2.5YR 5/8) very fine sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine roots; few gravels of quartz at top of horizon; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 43 cm; 0 to 17 inches)
C1-- 94 to 124 cm (37 to 49 inches); yellowish red (5YR 4/6) saprolite that has a texture of very fine sandy loam; massive; very friable, few fine roots; common very fine flakes of mica; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C2--124 to 180 cm (49 to 72 inches); reddish brown (5YR 5/4) saprolite that has a texture of loamy fine sand; common coarse distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) and few medium prominent black (5YR 2.5/1) mottles; massive; very friable; few fine roots; common very fine flakes of mica; very strongly acid.
State: South Carolina
USGS Topographic Quadrangle: Whetstone, SC
Latitude: 34.7705176 N (NAD 27)
Longitude: 83.1575274 W (NAD 27)
Directions to the pedon: 3.5 miles south of Stumphouse Ranger Station and 5.2 miles southeast of Whetstone; from junction of Stumphouse Road (South Carolina Secondary Road 290) and Rich Mountain Road (USFS 744) go 3.0 miles generally south on Rich Mountain Road, then at 320 degrees north from center of road go 425 feet, at an elevation of 1630 feet.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Solum Thickness: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Depth to Bedrock: Greater than 152 cm (60 inches) to weathered bedrock
Depth Class: Very Deep
Rock Fragment content: 0 to 35 percent, by volume, but typically is less than 20 percent throughout the profile
Soil Reaction: Extremely acid to moderately acid in the A and E horizons, except where limed; very strongly acid or strongly acid in the B and C horizons.
Content of Mica: 0 to 20 percent, by volume mica flakes throughout
Range of Individual Horizons:
A or Ap horizon (if it occurs):
Color--hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 8. Where value and chroma are 3 or less, this horizon is less than 18 cm (7 inches) thick.
Texture (fine-earth fraction)--loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam.
Other features--Some eroded pedons have a surface layer that is sandy clay loam or clay loam, and a hue of 2.5YR or 5YR.
E horizon (if it occurs):
Color--hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, chroma of 3 to 8.
Texture (fine-earth fraction)--sandy loam, or fine sandy loam.
AB, BA or BE horizon (if they occur):
Color--hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 4 to 8
Texture (fine-earth fraction)--loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam
Color--hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8.
Texture (fine-earth fraction)--sandy clay loam, loam, or clay loam.
BC horizon (if it occurs):
Color--hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 or 8.
Texture (fine-earth fraction)--sandy loam, fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. Non-redoximorphic mottles (if they occur)--shades of red, brown, or yellow are in some pedons.
Color--hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8
Texture (fine-earth fraction)--sandy loam, fine sandy loam, very fine sandy loam, loam, loamy fine sand, or loamy sand saprolite.
Non-redoximorphic mottles (if they occur)--are in shades of red, brown, or yellow. Gray or black mottles of relic rock material are in some pedons.
Brevard soils--formed on colluvial or old alluvial landforms positions
Cowee soils--have a paralithic contact with weathered bedrock at 51 to 102 cm, (20 to 40 inches).
Stott Knob soils--adjoining mesic areas of the Southern
Piedmont (MLRA 136); have a paralithic contact with weathered bedrock at 51 to 102 cm, (20 to 40 inches).
Walhalla soils--have a thicker argillic horizon, 71 to 140 cm (28 to 55 inches).
MLRA(s) using this series: Southern Blue Ridge--130B
Landscape: Intermountain hills, low and intermediate mountains
Landform: Mountain slope, hillslopes, and ridges
Geomorphic Component: Mountain top, mountain flank, side slope, and interfluves
Hillslope Profile Position: Summit, shoulders, and backslopes
Parent Material Origin: Felsic to mafic, igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, such as mica gneiss, hornblende gneiss, and amphibolite.
Parent Material Kind: Residuum that is affected by soil creep in the upper solum.
Slope: Typically 15 to 50 percent, but range from 2 to 95 percent.
Elevation: 427 to 1341 meters; (1,400 to 4,400 feet)
Frost-free period: 150 to 210 days
Mean Annual Air Temperature: 8 to 14 degrees C, (46 to 57 degrees F)
Mean Annual Precipitation: 1143 to 2286 millimeters, (45 to 90 inches)
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS:
In addition to the competing
Walhalla series, these are:
Pigeonroost soils which are browner and on closely related landforms. In addition, Pigeonroost is moderately deep to weathered bedrock.
Rabun soils have a fine particle size class, on related landforms.
Edneyville soils do not have an argillic horizon on related landforms.
Watauga soils--are in a micaceous family on related landforms. In addition Cashiers soils have thicker, darker surface layers, on ridges and side slopes of cool north to east aspects and Brownwood, Cashiers, Chandler, and Micaville soils do not have an argillic horizon.
Saluda soils--have bedrock within a depth of 20 inches on related landforms.
Tusquitee soils--are on colluvial benches, toe slopes, and fans. In addition, Cullasaja, Haywood, Saunook, Thunder, Tuckasegee, and Tusquitee soils have thicker, darker surface layers.
Unaka soils--with thicker, darker surface layers, on ridges and side slopes of cool north to east aspects. In addition, Plott, Porters, and Unaka do not have an argillic horizon.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY:
Drainage Class: Well drained
Internal Free Water Occurrence: Very deep
Index Surface Runoff: Very low or low runoff where forest litter has not been disturbed or only partially removed; medium to high runoff where litter has been removed.
Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Class: High
Permeability Class (obsolete): Moderately rapid
Shrink-swell Class: Low
Flooding Frequency and Duration: None
Ponding Frequency and Duration: None
USE AND VEGETATION:
Major Uses: Woodland, less often pasture, hayland, and rarely cultivated crops.
Dominant Vegetation: Where wooded--chestnut oak, white oak, scarlet oak, black oak, and hickory with some eastern white pine, Virginia pine, and shortleaf pine. Understory includes flowering dogwood, American chestnut sprouts, sourwood, mountain laurel, flame azalea, black locust, greenbrier, and buffalo nut.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT:
Distribution: Southern Blue Ridge (MLRA 130B) of South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Virginia.
Extent: Large--more than 100,000 acres.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Greenville County, South Carolina, 1972
REMARKS: The 1/98 revision places Evard series in a parasesquic mineralogy family. Evard soils were formerly in an oxidic mineralogy.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
a. Ochric epipedon--the zone from 0 to 13 cm, 0 to 5 inches (A and E horizons)
b. Argillic horizon--the zone from 13 to 58 cm, 5 to 29 inches (Bt horizons)c. Parasesquic mineralogy class - total iron oxide, by weight (DCB Fe multiplied by 1.43) plus percent, by weight, gibbsite of more than 10 in the fine-earth fraction.
d. Series control section--the zone from 10 to 64 cm, 5 to 25 inches.
Soil Characterization Data is available from the Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory (KSSL) website
Revised: 11/1992-ECH, DJD; 9/1996-BPS, DHK; 1/1998-DHK; 2/2002-MKC; 5/2013-Semi tab format and minor changes to Range in Characteristics- MLRA-130B.
National Cooperative Soil Survey