LOCATION SALUDA SC+GA NCEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, mixed, active, mesic, shallow Typic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Saluda sandy loam - forested. (Colors are for moist soil.)
Oi--0 to 1 inch; organic debris; partially decomposed.
A--1 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; few (less than 1 percent) angular pebbles of quartz; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick)
Bt1--6 to 10 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; few (less than 1 percent) angular pebbles of quartz; few faint clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick)
Bt2--10 to 17 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots and few medium roots; few faint clay films; few (less than 1 percent) fine and medium fragments of granite and gneiss; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick)
Cr1--17 to 31 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), black (N 2/0), and brown (7.5YR 4/4) horizontal layers of granite and gneiss saprolite that crushes to sand under moderate pressure; rock structure; undisturbed areas are very firm in places but become loose when disturbed; few fine roots in cracks; cracks are more than four inches apart; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (10 to 40 inches thick)
Cr2--31 to 72 inches; mottled very pale brown (10YR 8/2), brown (7.5YR 4/4), and yellow (10YR 8/6) horizontal layers of granite and gneiss saprolite that crushes to sand under light pressure; rock structure; undisturbed areas are firm in place but become loose when disturbed; few fine roots in cracks; cracks are more than four inches apart; moderately acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Pickens County, South Carolina; about 13.2 miles north of Pickens; from junction of S. C. Highways 11 and 8, go west of S. C. Highway 11 for 0.6 miles; turn north on unnumbered county road and go 2.1 miles to Saluda Hills Church; at driveway to church, turn west onto small gravel road and go 390 feet, then go 75 feet at 223 degrees to site.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to paralithic contact is 10 to 20 inches. Depth to hard rock is greater than 40 inches. Coarse fragments of gravel to boulder size range to as much as 35 percent in the A horizon and to 20 percent in the B horizon. The soil is very strongly acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 6. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or the stony analogues of these textures.
The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam. Some pedons have a thin BA or BC horizon of sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam with colors like the Bt horizon.
The Cr horizon is variable in color. It is saprolite of weathered granite, gneiss, or schist.
COMPETING SERIES: There are no other known series in the same family. Similar series in other families are the Ashe, Chandler, Chester, Edneyville, Fannin, Hartsells, Talladega, Tate, and Watauga series. Ashe and Chandler soils lack Bt horizons. Chester, Edneyville, Fannin, Hartsells, Tate, and Watauga soils have sola more than 20 inches thick. Talladega soils have A and B horizons with more than 35 percent coarse fragments.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Saluda soils are on narrow crests and steep slopes of the Appalachian Mountains at elevations of about 1,500 to 5,000 feet. Slopes are dominantly 25 to 90 percent, but range from 10 to 90 percent. Annual precipitation ranges from about 55 to 80 inches. The soil formed in weathered granite, gneiss, or schist. Mean annual temperature ranges from 50 degrees to 57 degrees F.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the competing Ashe, Chester, Edneyville, and Tate series, plus the Evard, Hayesville, Porters, and Tusquitee series. Evard soils have solum thickness of 20 to 40 inches. Hayesville soils have solum thickness of 20 inches or more and have more than 35 percent clay in the upper Bt horizon. Porters and Tusquitee soils have surface layers more than 6 inches thick with color values of less than 4. Also, Porters soils have solum thickness of 20 to 40 inches and Tusquitee soils have solum thickness of more than 40 inches.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; rapid surface runoff; moderate permeability.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are in forest of oaks, hickory, white pine, hemlock, and yellow poplar with an understory of rhododendron, laurel, and dogwood.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: South Carolina, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Pickens County, South Carolina, 1971.
REMARKS: The 3/99 revision updates classification to the 8th Edition of Keys to Soil Taxonomy. This soil is placed in the active CEC activity class based on comparison with associated soils such as Ashe and Edneyville.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon - the zone from 0 to 6 inches.
Argillic horizon - the zone from 6 to 17 inches.
Paralithic contact at 17 inches.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Particle-size analysis is on file for this pedon.