Established Series


The Lincoln series consists of very deep, somewhat excessively drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in recent sandy alluvium. These nearly level to very gently undulating soils occur on flood plains in the Central Rolling Red Plains and Southern High Plains Breaks. Slope ranges from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 635 mm (25 in), and mean annual air temperature is about 16.1 degrees C (61 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, mixed, thermic Typic Ustifluvents

TYPICAL PEDON: Lincoln loamy fine sand, on a nearly level, plane, 0.5 percent slope, in rangeland at an elevation of about 1,255 feet.
(Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 28 cm (0 to 11 in); brown (7.5YR 5/3) loamy fine sand, brown (7.5YR 4/2) moist; weak fine and medium granular structure; soft, very friable; thin strata and masses of fine sand to loam; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary. Thickness is 15 to 38 cm (6 to 15 in)

C--28 to 203 cm (11 to 80 in); pink (7.5YR 7/4) fine sand, light brown (7.5YR 6/4) moist; single grained; loose, very friable; very thin to 1 inch thick strata of darker colored fine sandy loam through clay loam that decreases in thickness and number with depth; bedding planes are evident; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

Tillman County, Oklahoma; About 2 miles west and 2 miles north of Tipton; 200 feet north and 2,300 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 28, T. 1 N., R. 19 W;
USGS topographic quadrangle: Tipton, Oklahoma;
Latitude: 34 degrees, 31 minutes, 20 seconds N;
Longitude: 99 degrees, 12 minutes, 02 seconds W;
Datum: NAD 27.

Soil moisture: A Typic-Ustic soil moisture regime.
Solum thickness: 60 to 80 inches.

Particle-size control section (weighted average):
Clay content: 0 to 15 percent silicate clay.
Coarse fragments: 0 to 10 percent

A horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 2.5Y
Value: 4 to 7 dry, 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 2 to 6
Note: Where the moist color value and chroma are less than 3.5, the thickness is less than 10 inches.
Texture: loamy fine sand, sand, fine sandy loam, loam, clay loam
Effervescence: none to strong
Reaction (pH): slightly alkaline to moderately alkaline (7.4 to 8.4)

C horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 2.5Y
Value: 5 to 8 dry, 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: sand, loamy fine sand stratified with thin strata of fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam
Note: The strata are less than 2.5 cm (1 in) thick, are darker colored, and contain more organic carbon than the remainder of the soil.
Effervescence: slight to strong
Reaction (pH): moderately alkaline (7.9 to 8.4)

COMPETING SERIES: The Sayers series is the only series in the same family. Similar soils are the Gad, Gaddy, Gracemore, Guadalupe, and Westola series.
Sayers soils: are noncalcareous in the particle-size control section.
Gad soils: are moist in the soil moisture control section for longer periods of time and have mean annual air temperatures of 65 to 70 degrees F.
Gaddy soils: are moist in the soil moisture control section for longer periods of time.
Gracemore soils: have a water table within 102 cm (40 in) of the soil surface.
Guadalupe and Westola soils: have a coarse-loamy particle-size control seciton.

Parent material: Recent sandy alluvium
Landform: nearly level to very gently undulating flood plains in the Central Rolling Red Plains and Southern High Plains Breaks.
Slopes: 0 to 3 percent
Precipitation Pattern: July through August and December through February are the driest months. These soils are intermittently moist in September through November and March through June.
Mean annual precipitation: 508 to 762 mm (20 to 30 in)
Thornthwaite annual P-E Index Values: 31 to 44
Mean annual air temperature: 13.9 to 17.8 degrees C (57 to 64 degrees F)
Frost-free period: 185 to 230 days.
Elevation: 274.3 to 762.0 meters (900 to 2500 feet)

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Gracemont, Gracemore, Jester, Tivoli, and Westola series.
Gracemont and Gracemore soils: have water tables at or near the surface and occur on similar positions.
Jester and Tivoli soils: do not have fluventic features and occur on higher hummocky to duney areas.
Westola soils: have a coarse-loamy particle-size control section and usually occur further from the stream channel and at slightly higher elevations.

Drainage: Somewhat excessively drained
Permeability: Rapid
Surface runoff: negligible on 0 to 1 percent slopes and very low on 1 to 3 percent slopes
Wetness: A water table occurs at a depth of 152 to 244 cm (5 to 8 feet) during the months of November to May
Flooding: frequently to rarely flooded for very brief to brief periods during the spring and summer months

USE AND VEGETATION: Used mainly for rangeland. Native vegetation is tall grasses with small percent of trees, mainly eastern cottonwood and tamarisk. Some areas are cultivated to bermudagrass, weeping lovegrass, winter wheat, and forage sorghums.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Western Oklahoma and northwestern Texas; LRR H; Central Rolling Red Plains (MLRAs 78B and 78C) and Southern High Plains Breaks (MLRA 77E). The soil is extensive.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Russell County, (Russell Area), Kansas; 1903.

Series revised March 2002 by Mike Risinger and Charlie Cail to correct elevation, precipitation, temperature, and slope ranges.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this soil are:
Particle-size control section: 25 to 102 cm (10 to 40 in)
Ochric epipedon: 0 to 28 cm (0 to 11 in) (A horizons)
Fluventic feature: Irregular decrease in organic matter content with depth.

ADDITIONAL DATA: KSSL data from Pedon ID# 93OK059008

Taxonomic version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014

National Cooperative Soil Survey