LOCATION TIVOLI                  OK+KS TX

Established Series


The Tivoli series consists of very deep, excessively drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy eolian sediments. These soils occur on undulating to hummocky sand dunes on stream terraces. Slope is complex and ranges from 1 to 45 percent. Mean annual precipitation is 660 mm (26 in), and the mean annual temperature is 16.1 degrees C (61 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Mixed, thermic Typic Ustipsamments

TYPICAL PEDON: Tivoli fine sand, rangeland, at an elevation of 608 m (1995 ft). (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 in); pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; single grain; loose, very friable; many roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. (Thickness of the A horizon is 10 to 25 cm [4 to 10 in])

C--18 to 152 cm (7 to 60 in); yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) moist; single grain; loose; roots decrease as depth increases; neutral.

TYPE LOCATION: Woodward County, Oklahoma; about 2 1/2 miles northeast of Woodward; 2000 feet north and 3350 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 9, T. 23 N., R. 20 W.

USGS topographic quadrangle: Woodward NE, OK;
Latitude: 36 degrees, 28 minutes, 59.41 seconds N
Longitude: 99 degrees, 20 minutes, 48.94 seconds W
Datum: NAD83

Decimal Degrees:
Latitude: 36.4831694
Longitude: -99.3469278

UTM Northing: 4037597 m
UTM Easting: 468924 m
UTM Zone 14

Soil Moisture regime: Typic-Ustic

A horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand
Organic matter: less than 1 percent
Effervescence: none
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

AC horizon (where present):
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value of 4 to 8
Chroma of 3 to 8
Texture: fine sand
Effervescence: none
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline

C horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value of 5 to 8
Chroma of 3 to 8
Texture: sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand
Effervescence: none; some pedons are calcareous below depths of 102 cm (40 in)
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline in the upper part and neutral to moderately alkaline in the lower part

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Goodnight, Jester, and Southside series in the same family. Similar soils are the Likes and Nutivoli series.
Goodnight soils: are moist for longer periods
Jester soils: are calcareous throughout and occur on or adjacent to flood plains
Likes soils: are effervescent throughout, have secondary carbonates within 51 cm (20 in) of the surface and are dry for longer periods
Southside soils: formed in alluvium and have gravelly textures
Nutivoli soils: are dry for longer periods

Parent material: sandy eolian sediments
Landscape: river valleys and dissected plains
Landform: sand dunes on sand sheets and stream terraces
Slope: complex, 1 to 45 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 508 to 810 mm (20 to 32 in)
Mean annual air temperature: 13.9 to 17.8 degrees C (57 to 64 degrees F)
Frost free period: 185 to 240 days
Elevation ranges: 304.8 to 884 m (1000 to 2,900 ft)
Thornthwaite annual P-E index values: 30 to 44

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Jester series and the Carwile, Daycreek, Devol, Eda, Grandfield, Lincoln, Miles, and Nobscot series.
Carwile soils: have a fine textured particle-size control section and occur in lower concave areas
Daycreek soils: have a water table within 152 cm (60 in) of the soil surface
Devol soils: occur in adjacent slightly lower areas, have argillic horizons, and are coarse-loamy in the particle-size control section
Eda soils: contain lamellae and occur in slightly lower side slopes and undulating areas
Grandfield and Miles soils: occur on slightly lower broad flats or ridges, and have argillic horizons that are fine-loamy in the particle-size control section
Jester soils: occur in lower areas closer to streams
Lincoln soils: occur on flood plains
Nobscot soils: occur on slightly higher areas further from the streams, have argillic horizons that are coarse-loamy in the particle-size control section, and have shinnery oak vegetation.

Drainage class: excessive
Permeability: rapid
Runoff: negligible on 1 to 5 percent slopes, very low on 5 to 20 percent slopes, and low on greater than 20 percent slopes

USE AND VEGETATION: Used mainly for grazing beef cattle. Native vegetation is sand bluestem, sand dropseed, and sand reedgrass. Sandsage brush and skunk brush are woody invaders.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: LRR H; Central Rolling Red Plains, Western and Eastern Parts (MLRAs 78B and 78C) of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. The series is extensive.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Major County, Oklahoma; 1936.

Edited 11/2013 (RFG-ROG-TGM): Converted to tabular format and added metric measurements. Updated competing series, geographic setting, and associated soils sections.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: 0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 in) (A horizon)
Psaments: less than 35 percent (by volume) rock fragments and a texture of loamy fine sand or coarser in all layers between the A horizon or a depth of 25 cm (10 in) from the mineral soil surface, whichever is deeper, and a depth of 102 cm (40 in).


Taxonomic version: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Twelfth Edition, 2014.

National Cooperative Soil Survey