LOCATION MADDOCK ND+MN SDEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, mixed, frigid Entic Hapludolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Maddock loamy fine sand - on a 4 percent west facing slope in native grassland. (Colors for moist soil unless otherwise stated)
A--0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) dry; weak fine granular structure parting to single grain; loose; nonsticky and nonplastic; many very fine and few fine roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (6 to 16 inches thick)
Bw--10 to 14 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand, brown (10YR 4/3) dry; single grain; loose; nonsticky and nonplastic; common very fine roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 22 inches thick)
C1--14 to 26 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) fine sand, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) dry; single grain; loose; nonsticky and nonplastic; common very fine roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
C2--26 to 43 inches; dark yellowish brownish (10YR 4/4) fine sand, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) dry; single grain; loose; nonsticky and nonplastic; few very fine roots; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
C3--43 to 60 inches; dark yellowish brownish (10YR 4/4) fine sand, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) dry; few fine faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) mottles; single grain; loose; nonsticky and nonplastic; slightly alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Ransom County, North Dakota; 1,220 feet west and 150 feet north of southeast corner, Sec. 24, T. 135 N., R. 54 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The 10- to 40-inch particle-size control section is typically fine sand or loamy fine sand, but in some pedons it is loamy sand or sand with less than 30 percent medium and coarse sand. It has less than 5 percent rock fragments. The depth to carbonates ranges from 0 to more than 60 inches. The carbonates commonly are diffused. The mollic epipedon ranges from 7 to 16 inches in thickness.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3 and 3 to 5 dry, and chroma of 1 or less; however, chroma of 2 is allowed in the lower part. It is loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loam, fine sand or loamy sand. Where A horizon is fine sandy loam, sandy loam or loam, the thickness ranges from 4 to 9 inches. The A horizon is slightly acid to slightly alkaline. Some pedons have an AC horizon.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5 and 4 to 6 dry, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is fine sand, loamy fine sand or loamy sand. It is slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Some pedons have a Bk or BC horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 3 to 6 and 4 to 7 dry, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is fine sand, loamy fine sand, loamy sand or sand. It has a small amount of fine gravel is in some pedons. It is slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Below depths of 40 inches the texture ranges from sand to clay loam.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Hubbard, Kost and Lohnes series. Hubbard and Kost soils are substantially wetter in the soil moisture control section during the 120 days following the summer solstice. Hubbard and Lohnes soils contain more than 30 percent medium and coarser sand.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Maddock soils are on level to steep sandy glaciolacustrine or glaciofluvial, outwash and delta plains, some of which have been wind worked. Slope gradients range from 0 to 35 percent. The soil formed in fine sands deposited by wind or water. The mean annual air temperature ranges from about 37 to 48 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation from about 15 to 24 inches. Three-fourths of the rainfall is in the spring and summer. Frost-free period ranges from 105 to 140 days. Elevation above sea level ranges from 650 to 2350 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Lohnes soils and the Hamar, Hecla, Sverdrup and Venlo soils. Lohnes soils are on the foot slopes and concave positions. Hamar soils are on the lower, somewhat poorly and poorly drained areas. Hecla soils are on more level and slightly concave parts of the landscape and in some areas are in complex with Maddock soils. They have a higher water table. Sverdrup soils are on similar positions as Maddock soils. They have a cambic horizon. Venlo soils are in the lowest basins and swales and are very poorly drained.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained or somewhat excessively drained. Rapidly permeable. Runoff is negligible or very low depending on slope.
USE AND VEGETATION: Cultivated areas are used for growing small grains, corn, hay and pasture. Native vegetation is tall and mid prairie grasses as prairie sandreed, needleandthread, some sedges, and forbs.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Eastern North Dakota, northeastern South Dakota and western Minnesota. The soil is extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Clay County, South Dakota, 1953.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 10 inches (A horizon); Bw horizon has the color but not the organic matter content to be mollic.
ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory sample number S54NDak-39-1 in Soil Survey Investigation Report No. 2, p. 154.