LOCATION MADELIA                 MN+IA

Established Series


The Madelia series consists of very deep, poorly drained soils that formed in calcareous silty lacustrine sediments on glacial lake plains and moraines. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual temperature is about 9 degrees C (48 degrees F). Mean annual precipitation is about 711 mm (28 inches),

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Madelia silty clay loam with a plane level slope on a glacial lake plain in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)

Ap--0 to 23 cm (0 to 9 inches); black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [18 to 28 cm (7 to 11 inches thick)]

A--23 to 36 cm (9 to 14 inches); black (10YR 2/1) silty clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. [8 to 20 cm (3 to 8 inches thick)]

AB--36 to 48 cm (14 to 19 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silty clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few narrow grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) channels; many fine tubular pores; neutral; gradual irregular boundary. [0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 inches thick)]

Bg--48 to 69 cm (19 to 27 inches); olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay loam; few medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine tubular pores; few dark colored tongues and krotovina channels; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary.[15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches thick) ]

BCg1--69 to 94 cm (27 to 37 inches); olive gray (5Y 5/2) silty clay loam; many fine faint olive (5Y 5/3) and many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few dark colored krotovina channels; many fine rounded black concretions; many fine tubular pores; slightly alkaline; slightly effervescent; abrupt wavy boundary. [15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches thick)]

BCg2--94 to 152 cm (37 to 60 inches); olive gray (5Y 5/2) silt loam; many fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium platy structure; friable; slightly alkaline; strong effervescent. . [Combined thickness of BCg horizon is 0 to 97 cm (0 to 38 inches)]

TYPE LOCATION: Blue Earth County, Minnesota, about 3 miles east of Garden City; 1700 feet south and 300 feet east of northwest corner of sec. 30, T. 107 N., R. 27 W. USGS Lake Crystal, MN quadrangle, latitude 44 degrees 02 minutes 45 seconds N., longitude 94 degrees 07 minutes 37 seconds W., NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to free carbonates range from 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches). The mollic epipedon ranges from 36 to 61 cm (14 to 24 inches) in thickness. Typically the series control section averages between 22 and 30 percent clay with an extreme range of 18 to 35 percent and from 3 to 15 percent fine sand and coarser.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR or is neutral, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0 or 1. It typically is a silt loam or silty clay loam. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral.

The B horizon has a hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, chroma of 1 or 2 or a hue of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1, 2, or 3. It is silty clay loam or silt loam. Reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline.

The BC or C horizon has 2.5Y or 5Y hue, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 through 4. It is silt loam, silty clay loam, or loam high in content of very fine sand. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline with free carbonates throughout, but in some pedons its upper 30 cm (12 inches) or less are slightly alkaline and lack free carbonates. A loam 2C horizon of glacial till begins at depths as shallow as 102 cm (40 inches) in a some pedons.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Chalmers, Dolbee, Drummer, Elvira, Garwin, Hartsburg, Marcus, Maxcreek, Maxfield, Ossian, Patton, Pella, Rushmore, Sable, and Wacousta series in the same family. Chalmers and Dolbee do not have free carbonates within a depth of 102 cm (40 inches). Drummer soils have thicker sola and a 10YR hue in the lower B horizon and C horizons. Elvira soils have concentrations of Fe and Mn oxides in the A and B horizons. Garwin soils have a lower content of sand in the sola, prismatic structure in the lower B horizons and in the upper C horizons and in addition lack free carbonates above depths of (102 cm) 40 inches. Hartsburg soils have a lower content of sand and lime concretions in the B2 horizon. Wacousta soils have thinner sola. Marcus soils have finer textured A and upper B horizons. Maxcreek, Maxfield and Rushmore soils have a loamy 2C horizon of glacial till beginning within depths of 102 cm (40 inches). Ossian soils have thicker sola and free carbonates at a greater depth. Patton and Pella soils typically have a 10YR hue in the B horizon and loamy till or outwash 2C horizons at depths of about 102 cm (40 inches). Sable soils contain less sand and have thicker sola.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: These soils have plane to slightly concave slopes. They are on level to gently undulating lake plains or ground moraines that are mantled with lacustrine sediments. Slope gradient is 0 to 2 percent. They have formed in silty lacustrine sediments of late Wisconsinan Age. . Mean annual air temperature is 7 to 10 degrees C (45 to 50 degrees F), and mean annual precipitation is 686 to 813 mm (27 to 32 inches). Frost free days range form 155 to 200 days. Elevation above sea level ranges from 242 to 427 m (800 to 1400 feet).

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the Kingston, Spicer, and Truman soils. Kingston soils are moderately well to somewhat poorly drained and the Truman soils are well drained and are on higher lying or more sloping terrain. The very poorly and poorly drained calcareous Spicer soils are in nearby depressions and low rises. These soils developed in materials that are similar to those of the Madelia soils and are members of a hydrosequence with the Madelia soils.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Poorly drained. Surface runoff is negligible or low. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is 4.23 to 14.11 micrometers per second (.6 to 2 inches per hour). The apparent seasonal high saturation is at a depth of 0 to 30 centimeters (0 to 1 feet) during the wettest parts of normal years.

USE AND VEGETATION: Largely cultivated and cropped intensively to corn and soybeans. Small grain and hay are other major crops. Reed canarygrass commonly dominates partially drained pasture. Native vegetation is predominantly wet-site tall prairie species such as prairie cordgrass, switchgrass, big bluestem, wooly sedge, giant goldenrod and Canada goldenrod.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRA-103. Southern Minnesota and northern Iowa. Moderately extensive.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Blue Earth County, Minnesota, 1975.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon-from the surface of the soil to a depth of 48 cm (19 inches) (Ap, A, and AB horizons; cambic horizon - the zone from 48 to 152 cm (19 to 60 inches) (Bg, BCg1, BCg2 horizons).

ADDITIONAL DATA: Refer to NSSL-S69MN710 for results of some laboratory analyses of a typical pedon of this series.

National Cooperative Soil Survey