LOCATION MADISON NC+AL GA SC VAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Madison gravelly sandy loam. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 6 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly sandy loam; moderate, medium and coarse, granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; few fine flakes of mica; fragments of quartz and schist about l inch in size, make up about 20 percent of horizon; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (2 to 9 inches thick)
BE--6 to 9 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; common medium flakes of mica; common fragments of quartz and schist; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick)
Bt--9 to 30 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) clay; moderate, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; sticky; slightly plastic; few fine and medium roots; common fine pores; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; many fine flakes of mica; common fragments of quartz and schist; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (12 to 30 inches thick)
BC--30 to 35 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; weak, fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; many fine flakes of mica; common fragments of quartz and schist; strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. (0 to 14 inches thick)
C--35 to 66 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) saprolite of mica schist that is sandy loam; common, medium, distinct red (2.5YR 5/8) mottles; massive; friable; strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Catawba County, North Carolina; 5 1/4 miles southeast of Newton on N.C. Highway 16, one-eighth mile south on SR 1810, 2 1/8 miles southeast on SR 1858, 2 miles west on SR 1874 and 500 feet north of road.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 20 to 50 inches. Depth to bedrock is more than 6 feet. Content of coarse fragments, mainly gravel, ranges from 0 to 25 percent in the A and E horizons and is 0 to 15 percent in the lower horizons. Content of mica ranges from few to many in the A, E, BE, and BA horizons; common or many in the Bt horizon; and many in the BC and C horizons. The soil is moderately acid to very strongly acid throughout, except where the surface has been limed. Limed soils are moderately acid or slightly acid in the upper part.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam, in the fine-earth fraction. Eroded pedons are sandy clay loam or clay loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The E horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR to 10YR, value of 3 or 5 and chroma of 3 to 6. It is fine sandy loam or sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The BA or BE horizons, where present, have hue of 10R to 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. They are sandy loam, loam or sandy clay loam.
The Bt horizon commonly has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Some pedons have thin subhorizons of the Bt horizon that range to 5YR and do not have mottles. Texture is clay, sandy clay or clay loam.
The BC horizon, where present, has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 4 to 6 and chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons it is mottled in shades of red, yellow, or brown. It is sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam or clay loam.
The C horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, values of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8 or is mottled with these colors. In some pedons it is mottled in shades of red, yellow, or brown. It is saprolite of mica schist, mica gneiss, or other high-grade metamorphic or igneous rocks that are high in mica content. Textures are sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. Locally, streaks or veins of soft quartz mica schist may be near the surface giving an irregular lower boundary to the Bt horizon.
COMPETING SERIES: Soils in the same family are Appling, Bethlehem, Cecil, Nankin, Pacolet, Saw, Tumbleton, and Wedowee. Appling, Cecil, Nankin, Pacolet, Tumbleton and Wedowee soils lack the many flakes of mica that produce a characteristic slick feel to Madison soil material. Bethlehem and Saw soils are moderately deep to bedrock. Nankin and Tumbleton soils are underlain by stratified Coastal Plain marine sediments.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Madison soils are on gently sloping to steep Piedmont uplands. Slopes range from 2 to 60 percent, but are mostly between 4 and 15 percent. The soils formed in residuum weathered from felsic or intermediate, high-grade metamorphic or igneous rocks high in content of mica. The mean annual air temperature ranges from 58 to 65 degrees F., and the mean annual precipitation ranges from about 40 to 65 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Appling, Bethlehem, Cecil, Pacolet, Saw, and Wedowee soils; and the Grover, Helena and Hulett series. Appling, Bethlehem, Cecil, Pacolet, Saw, and Wedowee soils are on similar landscape positions underlain by felsic, metamorphic or igneous rocks that are lower in mica content than the rocks from which Madison forms. The moderately well drained Helena soils have mixed mineralogy and are on toe slopes, at the heads of drains, and along small drainageways. Grover soils are fine-loamy and are typically on side slopes. Hulett soils have Bt horizons with hue of 5YR and yellower, and are on similar landscape positions as Madison.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; runoff is medium to rapid; permeability is moderate.
USE AND VEGETATION: About half the total acreage is cultivated or used for pasture. Principal crops grown are cotton, corn, wheat, oats, soybeans, peaches, apples, and vegetables. Original forest species include white, black, post, and red oaks; hickories; dogwood, sourwood; maple and elm. Shortleaf and loblolly pine were present in places and are now common, along with Virginia pine, in abandoned fields.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. The series is extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Raleigh, North Carolina
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Madison County, Georgia; 1918.
REMARKS: The June 1988 revision changed the classification to Typic Kanhapludults according to criteria in the Low Activity Clay Amendment to Soil Taxonomy, August 1986.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 6 inches.
Kandic horizon - the zone from 9 to 35 inches: it meets the low activity clay requirement for Kandic in more than 50 percent of the horizon.
Argillic horizon - the zone from 9 to 35 inches.
ADDITIONAL DATA: None
TABULAR SERIES DATA:
SOI-5 Soil Name Slope Airtemp FrFr/Seas Precip Elevation NC0071 MADISON 2- 60 58- 62 190-210 40- 65 700-1200 NC0231 MADISON 2- 60 58- 62 190-210 40- 65 700-1200
SOI-5 FloodL FloodH Watertable Kind Months Bedrock Hardness NC0071 NONE 6.0-6.0 - 60-60 NC0231 NONE 6.0-6.0 - 60-60
SOI-5 Depth Texture 3-Inch No-10 Clay% -CEC- NC0071 0- 6 L FSL SL 0- 3 80-100 5-20 1- 4 NC0071 0- 6 GR-FSL GR-SL 3- 10 60- 85 5-15 1- 4 NC0071 0- 6 CL SCL 0- 3 85-100 25-35 3- 6 NC0071 6-30 C CL SC 0- 3 85-100 30-50 3- 6 NC0071 30-35 L SCL CL 0- 3 85-100 25-35 2- 4 NC0071 35-66 FSL SL L 0- 5 80-100 5-20 1- 3 NC0231 0- 6 GR-SCL GR-CL 3- 10 55- 75 20-35 3- 6 NC0231 6-30 C CL SC 0- 3 85-100 30-60 4- 8 NC0231 30-35 L SCL CL 0- 3 85-100 15-35 2- 5 NC0231 35-66 FSL SL L 0- 3 80-100 8-20 1- 3
SOI-5 Depth -pH- O.M. Salin Permeab Shnk-Swll NC0071 0- 6 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 2.0- 6.0 LOW NC0071 0- 6 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 6.0- 20 LOW NC0071 0- 6 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0071 6-30 4.5- 5.5 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0071 30-35 4.5- 6.0 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0071 35-66 4.5- 6.0 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0231 0- 6 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0231 6-30 4.5- 5.5 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0231 30-35 4.5- 6.0 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0231 35-66 4.5- 6.0 0.-.2 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW