LOCATION CECIL NC+AL GA SC VAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Cecil sandy loam--forested. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 8 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick)
Bt1--8 to 26 inches; red (10R 4/8) clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; sticky, plastic; common clay films on faces of peds; few fine flakes of mica; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bt2--26 to 42 inches; red (10R 4/8) clay; few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; sticky, plastic; common clay films on faces of peds; few fine flakes of mica; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 24 to 50 inches)
BC--42 to 50 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) clay loam; few distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine flakes of mica; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick)
C--50 to 80 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) loam saprolite; common medium distinct pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) and common distinct brown (7.5YR 5/4) mottles; massive; very friable; few fine flakes of mica; very strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Franklin County, North Carolina; about 9.7 miles west of Louisburg on North Carolina Highway 56 to Franklinton, about 4.4 miles south on U.S. Highway 1, about 0.4 mile east on North Carolina Highway 96, about 500 feet north of the road, in a field; Franklinton USGS topographic quadrangle; lat. 36 degrees 02 minutes 24 seconds N. and long. 78 degrees 29 minutes 27 seconds W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The Bt horizon is at least 24 to 50 inches thick and extends to 40 inches or more. Depth to bedrock ranges from 6 to 10 feet or more. The soil ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid in the A horizons and is strongly acid or very strongly acid in the B and C horizons. Limed soils are typically moderately acid or slightly acid in the upper part. Content of coarse fragments range from 0 to 35 percent by volume in the A horizon and 0 to 10 percent by volume in the Bt horizon. Fragments are dominantly gravel or cobble in size. Most pedons have few to common flakes of mica in the Bt horizon and few to many flakes of mica in the BC and C horizons.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 8. A horizons with value of 3 are less than 6 inches thick. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction. Eroded phases are sandy clay loam, or clay loam in the fine earth fraction.
The E horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The BA or BE horizon, where present, has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is sandy clay loam, loam, or clay loam.
The Bt horizon averages 35 to 60 percent clay in the control section but may range to 70 percent in some subhorizons. It has hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 6 or 8. Hue also ranges to 5YR if evident patterns of mottling are lacking in the Bt and BC horizons. Mottles that are few and random are included. The Bt horizon is clay loam, clay, or sandy clay and contains less than 30 percent silt.
The BC horizon has hue of 10R to 5YR, value of 4 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Mottles in shades of yellow or brown are few to common in some pedons. The texture is sandy clay loam, clay loam, or loam.
The C horizon is similar in color to the BC horizon or it is variegated. It is loamy saprolite weathered from felsic, igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Appling, Bethlehem, Georgeville, Herndon, Madison, Nanford, Nankin, Pacolet, Saw, Tarrus, and Wedowee series in the same family. Those in closely related families are the Cataula, Chestatee, Cullen, Hulett, Lloyd, Mayodan, and Mecklenburg series. Appling soils have dominant hue of 7.5YR or yellower or where hue is 5YR it has evident patterns of mottling in a subhorizon of the Bt or BC horizon. Bethlehem soils have soft bedrock at depths of 20 to 40 inches. Cataula soils have a perched water table at 2 to 4 feet, Chestatee soils contain more than 15 percent, by volume, coarse fragments throughout. Cullen soils have more clay in the Bt horizon. Mayodan and Mecklenburg soils have mixed mineralogy and in addition, Mayodan soils formed in Triassic age sediments and Mecklenburg soils formed from basic diabase parent material. Georgeville, Herndon, Nanford, and Tarrus soils formed in Carolina slate and contain more than 30 percent silt. Hulett, Nankin, and Wedowee soils have a Bt horizon with hue of 5YR or yellower. In addition, Nankin soils formed from marine sediments. Lloyd soils have rhodic colors to depths of 40 inches or more. Madison, Pacolet, and Wedowee soils have thinner argillic horizons. Saw soils have hard bedrock at depths of 20 to 40 inches.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Cecil soils are on nearly level to steep Piedmont uplands. Slope gradients are 0 to 25 percent, most commonly between 2 and 15 percent. These soils have developed in weathered felsic igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. Average annual precipitation is about 48 inches. Mean annual soil temperature is about 59 degrees F.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: In addition to the competing Appling, Bethlehem, Cataula, Chestatee, Cullen, Lloyd, Madison, Mecklenburg, Pacolet, Saw, and Wedowee series these are the Durham, Louisburg, Rion, and Worsham series. Durham, Louisburg, and Rion soils have less clay in the Bt horizon. Worsham soils are poorly drained and are around the heads of drains.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium to rapid runoff; moderate permeability.
USE AND VEGETATION: About half of the total acreage is in cultivation, with the
remainder in pasture and forest. Common crops are small grains, corn, cotton, and tobacco.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Piedmont of Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, and Virginia. The series is of large extent, with an area of more than 10 million acres.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Raleigh, North Carolina
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Cecil County, Maryland; 1899.
REMARKS: The June 1988 revision changed the classification to Typic Kanhapludults and recognized the low activity clay properties of this soil as defined in the Low Activity Clay Amendment to Soil Taxonomy, August 1986. The December 2005 revision changed the type location from Catawba County, North Carolina to a more representative location. The May 2006 revision changed language in competing series for Wedowee.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon--the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 8 inches (Ap horizon)
Kandic horizon--the zone between 8 and 42 inches meets the low activity clay
requirement in more than 50 percent of the horizon (Bt1 and Bt2 horizons)
Argillic horizon--the zone between 8 and 42 inches (Bt1 and Bt2 horizons)
ADDITIONAL DATA: McCracken, R. J., editor: Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin 61, issued January, 1959, Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg, Virginia. Soil Survey of Catawba County, North Carolina, issued 1975. Soil Survey of Forsyth County, North Carolina, issued 1976.
REVISED--09/1997, RLV; 12/2005, DTA; 05/2006, RHB
TABULAR SERIES DATA:
SOI-5 Soil Name Slope Airtemp FrFr/Seas Precip Elevation NC0018 CECIL 0-25 57-65 175-200 45-55 200-900 NC0268 CECIL 0-25 57-65 160-190 44-55 300-800
SOI-5 FloodL FloodH Watertable Kind Months Bedrock Hardness NC0018 NONE >6.0 - - >60 NC0268 NONE >6.0 - - >60
SOI-5 Depth Texture 3-Inch No-10 Clay% -CEC- NC0018 0-8 SL FSL L 0-5 80-100 5-20 1-5 NC0018 0-8 GR-SL GR-L GR-FSL 5-15 55-85 5-20 1-5 NC0018 0-8 SCL CL 0-5 75-100 20-35 5-10 NC0018 8-50 C CL 0-5 92-100 35-70 3-12 NC0018 50-80 VAR - - - -
NC0268 0-8 GR-SCL GR-CL 0-10 60-85 20-35 5-10 NC0268 8-50 C CL 0-5 90-100 35-70 3-12 NC0268 50-80 VAR - - - -
SOI-5 Depth -pH- O.M. Salin Permeab Shnk-Swll NC0018 0-8 4.5-6.5 0.5-1.0 0-0 2.0-6.0 LOW NC0018 0-8 4.5-6.5 0.5-1.0 0-0 2.0-6.0 LOW NC0018 0-8 4.5-6.5 0.5-1.0 0-0 0.6-2.0 LOW NC0018 8-50 4.5-5.5 0.0-0.5 0-0 0.6-2.0 LOW NC0018 50-80 - - - - -
NC0268 0-8 4.5-6.0 0.5-1.0 0-0 0.6-2.0 LOW NC0268 8-50 4.5-5.5 0.0-0.5 0-0 0.6-2.0 LOW NC0268 50-80 - - - - -