LOCATION PADUS WI+MIEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Alfic Haplorthods
TYPICAL PEDON: Padus sandy loam - on a convex southeast facing 3 percent slope in a woodland at an elevation of about 1490 feet. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
A--0 to 2 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sandy loam, gray (N 5/0) dry; moderate medium and fine granular structure; friable; many very fine and fine and few medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick)
E--2 to 3 inches; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) sandy loam, pinkish gray (7.5YR 7/2) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; many very fine and fine and few medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid; abrupt broken boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick)
Bs1--3 to 8 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine and fine and few medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bs2--8 to 19 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine and fine and few medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bs horizons range from 4 to 25 inches.)
E/B--19 to 26 inches; about 85 percent brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam (E'), very pale brown (10YR 7/3)) dry; weak very thick platy structure; friable; surrounds remnants of brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam (Bt); moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick)
B/E--26 to 38 inches; about 80 percent brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam (Bt); moderate medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; few faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) clay films on faces of peds; penetrated by tongues of brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam (E'), pink (7.5YR 7/3) dry; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable; about 12 percent gravel; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick)
2C--38 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) stratified sand and gravelly coarse sand; single grain; loose; about 20 percent gravel; slightly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Florence County, Wisconsin; about 5 miles southwest of Fence; 150 feet north and 2100 feet west of the southeast corner, sec. 30, T. 38N., R. 16 E.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: (Unless otherwise stated, thickness and depth are measured from the top of the mineral soil.) Thickness of the loamy deposits and depth to sandy outwash range from 24 to 40 inches. Volume of rock fragments averages less than 35 percent in the particle size control section. Volume of gravel ranges from 0 to 35 percent but is typically less than 15 percent in the loamy mantle. Volume of gravel averages from 3 to 50 percent in the sandy outwash but ranges from 3 to 60 percent in individual strata. Volume of cobbles ranges from 0 to 5 percent throughout. Stones are on the surface in some areas and a stony phase is recognized. Reaction typically ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid in the upper part of the solum but it ranges to neutral in the Ap horizon, where the soil is limed. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid below the spodic horizon.
Some pedons have an O horizon with hue of 7.5YR or 10YR or the hue is neutral. Value is 2 or 3 and chroma is 0 to 2.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 to 3; and chroma of 1 or 2. Cultivated pedons have an Ap horizon with hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 3 or 4; and chroma of 2 or 3. The A or Ap horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam.
The E horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 4 to 6; and chroma of 2 or 3. It typically is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam but in some pedons it is loamy sand.
Some pedons have a Bhs horizon, less than 3 inches thick, with hue of 5YR or 7.5YR and value and chroma of 2 to 3. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam.
The Bs horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 6 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 4. It has textures like the Bhs horizon above.
Some pedons have an E' horizon with hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 4 to 6; and chroma of 2 or 3. Typically, it is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam or the gravelly analogs but in some pedons it is loamy sand or the gravelly analog.
Padus soils have a glossic horizon (E/B or B/E horizons, or both). The E' part has colors and textures like the E' horizon above. The Bt part has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 4 or 5; and chroma of 4 or 6. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or the gravelly analogs.
Some pedons have a Bt horizon with colors and textures like the Bt part described above.
Some pedons have a 2Bt or 2BC horizon with hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR and value and chroma 4 to 6. It is sand, loamy sand, or the gravelly or very gravelly analogs.
The 2C horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 4 to 6 and chroma of 3 to 6. It is stratified sand, coarse sand, or the gravelly, or very gravelly analogs.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Goodman, Mequithy, Newot, Padwet, and Sarona series. The Oconto series is similar. Mequithy soils have a lithic contact at 20 to 40 inches. Goodman soils have a 12 to 40 inch silty mantle and do not have stratified sand and gravel within 40 inches. Newot, and Sarona soils do not have stratified sand and gravel within 40 inches. Padwet soils have redoxymorphic features in the control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Padus soils are on glacial lake plains, outwash plains, stream terraces, eskers, kames, and moraines. They formed mostly in loamy alluvial deposits underlain by stratified sandy outwash. Slope gradients range from 0 to 45 percent. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 33 inches. Mean annual temperature ranges from 39 to 45 degrees F. The frost free period ranges from about 90 to 135 days. Elevation ranges from 700 to 19500 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Minocqua, Padwet, Padwood, Pence, Worcester, and Worwood soils. The moderately well drained Padwet soils, the somewhat poorly drained Worcester soils, and the poorly drained and very poorly drained Minocqua soils form a drainage sequence with the Padus soils. The moderately well drained Padwood soils and the somewhat poorly drained Worwood soils from a drainage sequence in nearby areas where the substratum is stratified sandy and loamy deposits at depths of 40 to 60 inches. The well drained Pence soils are nearby where the loamy deposits are thinner over the sandy and gravelly outwash.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Surface runoff is slow to very rapid. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the loamy mantle and rapid or very rapid in the sandy outwash.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are in woodland. Native vegetation is mostly sugar maple, red maple, northern red oak, American basswood, white ash, and eastern hemlock but bigtooth aspen, red pine, and eastern white pine are in some stands. Some areas have been cleared and are used for cropland. Common crops are corn, small grain, and hay. Some areas are used for growing potatoes.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. These soils are of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Oconto County, Wisconsin, 1985.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
ochric epipedon - 0 to 3 inches (A,E);
albic horizon - 2 to 3 inches (E);
spodic horizon - 3 to 19 inches (Bs1, Bs2);
glossic horizon - 19 to 38 inches (E/B, B/E);
argillic horizon - 26 to 38 inches (B/E).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Soil Interpretation Record - WI0015; WI0396 (STONY).