LOCATION PENCE WI+MIEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, isotic, frigid Typic Haplorthods
TYPICAL PEDON: Pence sandy loam - on a northwest-facing slope of 11 percent in an abandoned pasture at an elevation of about 1,675 feet. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
A--0 to 3 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) sandy loam, reddish gray (5YR 5/2) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; many roots; common white (5YR 8/1) sand grains; about 10 percent gravel; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick)
E--3 to 8 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) sandy loam, pinkish gray (7.5YR 7/2) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; many roots; about 10 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick)
Bs1--8 to 11 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) gravelly sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; common roots; about 15 percent gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bs2--11 to 15 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) gravelly sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; common roots; very friable; about 15 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bs horizons is 4 to 19 inches.)
2BC--15 to 21 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/6) gravelly coarse sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; very friable; few roots; about 25 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 13 inches thick)
2C--21 to 60 inches; stratified yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and reddish yellow (5YR 6/6) gravelly coarse sand; with thin strata of light reddish brown (5YR 6/4) coarse sand and sand; single grain; loose; about 25 percent gravel; strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Oneida County, Wisconsin; about 3/4 of a mile east of Three Lakes; 200 feet east and 380 feet north of the southwest corner, sec. 5, T. 38 N., R. 11 E. USGS Three Lakes, Wis. Quad. Latitude 45 degrees 47 minutes 55 seconds N. longitude 89 degrees 09 minutes 07 seconds W. NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 18 to 36 inches. Thickness of the loamy mantle is 10 to 20 inches. Volume of rock fragments averages less than 35 percent in the particle-size control section. Volume of gravel ranges from 0 to 35 percent in the loamy mantle. Volume of gravel ranges from 15 to 35 percent in the sandy outwash as a weighted average but ranges from 0 to 65 percent in individual strata. Volume of cobbles ranges from 0 to 10 percent throughout. Some areas have boulders on the surface and a bouldery phase is recognized. Reaction typically ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid in the upper part of the solum, but ranges to neutral in the Ap horizon, where the soil is limed. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the lower part of the solum and from strongly acid to slightly acid in the substratum.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, or has neutral hue; value of 2 to 3; and chroma of 0 to 2. Some pedons have an Ap horizon with hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 3 or 4; and chroma of 1 to 3. Uncoated sand grains are common in the Ap or A horizon. Texture of the A or Ap is typically sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam but in some places it is loamy sand.
The E horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 4 to 6; and chroma of 2 or 3. Colors of 4/3 and 5/3 have value dry of 7 or more. Texture is typically sandy loam, but the range includes loam, fine sandy loam, or loamy sand.
Some pedons have a Bhs horizon less than 3 inches thick. It has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 to 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or the gravelly analogs.
The Bs horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 6 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 4. Texture has texture like the Bhs horizon above.
Some pedons have a 2Bs horizon with color like the Bs horizon described above. Texture is loamy sand, loamy coarse sand or the gravelly analogues of these textures.
The 2BC horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 6 to 8. Texture is sand, coarse sand, loamy sand, loamy coarse sand, loamy fine sand, or the gravelly analogs. Some pedons have strata which are very gravelly or extremely gravelly analogs of these textures and some have strata of gravel.
The 2C horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 4 to 6; and chroma of 3 to 6. Typically, Texture is stratified with layers of sand or coarse sand, or the gravelly, very gravelly, or extremely gravelly analogs. Some pedons have strata of gravel.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Adams and Duxbury series. Adams soils are sandy throughout the series control section. Duxbury soils usually have Bh or Bhs horizons that are 3 or more inches thick.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: These soils are on glacial lake plains, outwash terraces, outwash plains, eskers, and kames within moraines. Slopes range from 0 to 50 percent. Pence soils formed in a thin mantle of loamy alluvium or eolian deposits and in the underlying sand or stratified sandy outwash. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 33 inches. Mean annual temperature ranges from 36 to 45 degrees F. The frost free period ranges from about 70 to 135 days. Elevation ranges from 600 to 2000 feet
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Manitowish, Padus, Sayner, Tipler(T), Vilas, Worcester, and Wormet(T) soils. The moderately well drained Manitowish soils and the somewhat poorly drained Wormet soils form a drainage sequence with Pence soils. The well drained Padus soils, the moderately well drained Tipler soils, and the somewhat poorly drained Worcester soils form a drainage sequence in nearby areas where the loamy mantle is 20 to 40 inches thick. The excessively drained Sayner and Vilas soils are on landscape positions similar to those of Pence soils where the loamy mantle is absent.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat excessively drained. The potential for surface rurface runoff ranges from negligible to high. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the loamy mantle and rapid or very rapid in the sandy outwash .
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas remain in woodland. Forest vegetation is mixed coniferous and deciduous forest. Timber stands are mostly sugar maple, paper birch, red maple, American basswood, northern red oak, white ash, eastern hemlock, and eastern white pine. Red pine, aspen, balsam, and yellow birch are also in some stands. Some areas are used for cropland or pastureland. Common crops are corn, small grains, and hay.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Northern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Bayfield County, Wisconsin, 1958.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons recognized in the pedon are:
ochric epipedon - 0 to 8 inches (A, E);
albic horizon - 3 to 8 inches (E);
spodic horizon - 8 to 15 inches (Bs1, Bs2).