LOCATION TALLMADGE ILEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiaquolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Tallmadge sandy loam - on a nearly level slope of less than 1 percent in a cultivated field at an elevation of 192.9 meters (633 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 20 cm (0 to 8 inches); black (10YR 2/1) sandy loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1), dry; weak fine and medium granular structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A--20 to 36 cm (8 to 14 inches); black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) dry; moderate medium granular structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the A horizon is 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches).]
AB--36 to 43 cm (14 to 17 inches); black (2.5Y 2.5/1) sandy clay loam, dark gray (2.5Y 4/1), dry; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine roots; 1 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary. [0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 inches) thick]
Btg1--43 to 64 cm (17 to 25 inches); dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) sandy clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; friable; common very fine roots; common faint very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) organo-clay films on faces of peds and in pores; black (2.5Y 2.5/1) krotovina; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and common fine and medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 1 percent gravel; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2--64 to 84 cm (25 to 33 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sandy clay loam; weak medium and coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium and coarse subangular blocky; friable; common very fine roots; few faint dark gray (2.5Y 4/1) clay films on faces of peds and in pores; black (2.5Y 2.5/1) krotovina; many medium and coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 1 percent light gray (10YR 7/2) decomposed limestone bedrock; 1 percent gravel; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Btg horizon is 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches).]
2BCg--84 to 109 cm (33 to 43 inches); 70 percent grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) and 30 percent very dark gray (2.5Y 3/1) stratified very channery loam to very channery loamy sand; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine roots; 4 percent light gray (10YR 7/2) decomposed limestone bedrock; 45 percent channers and 10 percent cobbles; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. [0 to 38 cm (0 to 15 inches) thick]
3R--109 cm (43 inches); white (10YR 8/1) limestone or dolostone bedrock partially fractured in upper 30 cm (1 foot); strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Kankakee County, Illinois; 3.2 kilometers (2 miles) south and 1.6 kilometers (1 mile ) east of Momence; 502.9 meters (1,650 feet) east and 353.6 meters (1,160 feet) north of the southwest corner of sec. 32, T. 31 N., R. 14 E.; USGS St. Anne topographic quadrangle; lat. 41 degrees 07 minutes 25 seconds N. and long. 87 degrees 38 minutes 10 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 446599 easting and 4552678 northing, NAD 83.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to the base of soil development and bedrock is 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches). Thickness of the mollic epipedon ranges from 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches). The particle-size control section averages between 18 to 30 percent clay and 40 to 65 percent sand.
The Ap, A, and/or AB horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or neutral, value of 2 to 3, and chroma of 0 to 2. It is loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or clay loam. Gravel content ranges from 0 to 5 percent. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or neutral; value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. It is clay loam, sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or loam. Gravel content ranges from 0 to 10 percent. Reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline.
The 2Btg, 2Bg, and/or 2BCg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or neutral; value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. The fine-earth fraction is sandy loam, loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam. Rock fragment content ranges from 15 to 60 percent. Rock fragments consist of gravel, cobbles and/or channers. Decomposed limestone or dolostone is commonly present in this horizon. Reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline. Calcium carbonate equivalent ranges from 0 to 10 percent.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Barry, Brookston, Clackamas, Cordova, Forestcity, Hamel, Jameston, Millgrove, Navan, Navunon, Nosoni, Radioville, Rensselaer, and Westland series. All but Navunon soils do not have a lithic contact within a depth of 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches). Navunon soils contain less than 15 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Tallmadge soils formed in glacial drift that is underlain by limestone or dolostone bedrock on ground moraines, outwash plains, and stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Mean annual air temperature is about 8 to 11 degrees C (47 to 52 degrees F), mean annual precipitation ranges from 890 to 1020 mm (35 to 40 inches), frost-free period ranges from 140 to 180 days, and elevation ranges from 182.9 to 205.7 meters (600 to 675 feet) above mean sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Faxon, Plattville, Rockton, and Selma soils. The poorly drained Faxon and Selma soils are on similar landscape positions. The Faxon soils have bedrock at depths of 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches) and the Selma soils do not have bedrock within the series control section. The well drained Plattville and Rockton soils are on higher landscape positions. The Plattville soils have bedrock at similar depths as the Tallmadge soils. The Rockton soils have bedrock at depths of 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches).
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Poorly drained. An intermittent perched high water table is at 15 cm (0.5 feet) above the soil surface to 30 cm (1.0 feet) below the surface at some time in normal years. The potential for surface runoff is negligible. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high (4.23 to 14.11 micrometers per second). Permeability is moderate.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most of these soils are used to grow corn, soybeans, and small grain. Native vegetation is hydrophytic grasses, reeds, and sedges.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Kankakee County Illinois. The extent is small in MLRA 110.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Kankakee County, Illinois, 2003.
REMARKS: The Tallmadge series was proposed for the areas of Selma bedrock substratum phase that was recognized in the June 1979 "Soil Survey of Kankakee County Illinois". The name Tallmadge is from a town in Pembroke Township in Kankakee County, Illinois.
Diagnostic features and horizons recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 43 cm (0 to17 inches) (Ap, A, and AB horizons); argillic horizon - the zone from 43 to 84 cm (17 to 33 inches) (Btg1 and Btg2); lithologic discontinuity at a depth of 84 cm (33 inches) - the contact between the Btg2 and 2BCg horizons; lithic contact - at a depth of 109 cm (43 inches); aquic conditions - redoximorphic features present in the zone from 43 to 109 cm (17 to 43 inches) (Btg1, Btg2, and 2BCg horizons).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Lab sample data (S02IL-091-018) is on file in the MLRA project office, Aurora, Illinois, and at the National Soil Survey Laboratory in Lincoln, Nebraska.