LOCATION WESTLAND                IN+IL NY OH

Established Series
Rev. BGN-MLW-KKN
07/2011

WESTLAND SERIES


The Westland series consists of very deep, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils that are deep to calcareous, stratified gravelly and sandy outwash. Westland soils formed in loamy material that can be capped with as much as 51 cm (20 inches) of loess or silty material. They are in depressions and on flats on outwash plains, stream terraces, and glacial drainage channels. Slope ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 1016 mm (40 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 10.0 degrees C (50 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Argiaquolls

TYPICAL PEDON: Westland silt loam, on a concave, 1 percent slope in a cultivated field at an elevation of about 343 meters (1,124 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 25 cm (10 inches); very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) silt loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches) thick]

Btg1--25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay loam; moderate medium and weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; many distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; common medium and coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; few fine faint gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions in the matrix; 3 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary.

Btg2--51 to 76 cm (20 to 30 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) clay loam; moderate coarse angular blocky structure; firm; many distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) clay films on faces of peds; many medium and coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; 10 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 38 to 63 cm (15 to 25 inches).]

2Btg3--76 to 114 cm (30 to 45 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) gravelly sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay bridging between sand grains; common fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; 15 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary. [13 to 43 cm (5 to 17 inches) thick]

2Cg--114 to 152 cm (45 to 60 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) stratified gravelly coarse sand and sand; single grain; loose; 30 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Henry County, Indiana; near the town of Mooreland; 660 feet west and 1,320 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 22, T. 18 N., R. 11 E.; USGS New Castle East, IN topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 59 minutes 43 seconds N. and long. 85 degrees 15 minutes 12.9 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 649090 easting and 4428699 northing, NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Thickness of the loess or silty material: 0 to 51 cm (20 inches)
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches)
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 76 to 140 cm (30 to 55 inches)
Depth to the base of soil development: 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches)
Particle-size control section: averages 24 to 35 percent clay

Ap or A horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y, or is neutral
Value: 2, 2.5, or 3
Chroma: 0 to 3
Texture: loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, or silt loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 5 percent gravel
Reaction: slightly acid or neutral

Btg horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y, or is neutral
Value: 3 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam in the upper part; loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam or the gravelly analogs of these textures in the lower part
Rock fragment content: 0 to 5 percent gravel in the upper part; 1 to 15 percent in the lower part
Reaction: slightly acid or neutral

2Btg horizon:
Hue: 10YR to 5Y, or is neutral
Value: 3 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: loam, clay loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam or the gravelly or very gravelly analogs of these textures
Rock fragment content: 5 to 40 percent gravel and 0 to 5 percent cobbles
Reaction: slightly acid to slightly alkaline

BCg or 2BCg horizon, where present:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y, or is neutral
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: loam, clay loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam, or the gravelly or very gravelly analogs of these textures
Rock fragment content: 5 to 40 percent gravel and 0 to 5 percent cobbles
Reaction: neutral or slightly alkaline

2C, 2Cg, 3C, or 3Cg horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y, or is neutral
Value: 3 to 7
Chroma: 0 to 4
Texture: stratified gravelly or very gravelly analogs of coarse sand or loamy coarse sand, and includes strata of loamy sand, coarse sand, sand, and extremely gravelly sand
Total clay and silt content: less than 15 percent
Sand content: averages 85 to 90 percent
Rock fragment content: averages 20 to 50 percent gravel and 0 to 12 percent cobbles; more than 15 percent is greater than 1 cm (1/2 inch) in diameter
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Barry, Brookston, Clackamas, Cordova, Forestcity, Hamel, Jameston, Millgrove, Navan, Navunon, Nosoni, Radioville, Rensselaer, and Tallmadge series. Barry, Brookston, Cordova, Jameston, Navan, Navunon, Radioville, and Rensselaer soils average less than 20 percent gravel in the lower part of the series control section. Clackamas soils are less than 102 cm (40 inches) to the base of soil development. Forestcity, Hamel, and Nosoni soils have a mollic epipedon that is more than 51 cm (20 inches) thick. Millgrove soils average less than 85 percent sand in the lower part of the series control section. Tallmadge soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches).

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Westland soils are in depressions and on flats on outwash plains, stream terraces, and glacial drainage channels. Slope ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Westland soils formed in loamy material that can be capped with up to 51 cm (20 inches) of loess or silty material. They are deep to calcareous, stratified gravelly and sandy outwash. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 914 to 1092 mm (36 to 43 inches). Mean annual temperature ranges from 9.4 to 12.8 degrees C (49 to 55 degrees F).

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Crane, Glenhall, Longlois, Monitor, Ockley, Sleeth, Thackery, Tippecanoe, Warsaw, and Wea soils. The well drained Longlois, Ockley, Warsaw, and Wea soils; the moderately well drained Glenhall, Thackery, and Tippecanoe soils; and the somewhat poorly drained Crane, Monitor, and Sleeth soils are on swells on outwash plains.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Poorly drained or very poorly drained. In drained areas, depth to the top of an intermittent apparent high water table ranges from 15 cm (0.5 foot) above the surface to 15 cm (0.5 foot) below the surface during winter and spring in normal years. Potential for surface runoff is negligible or very low. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the solum and very high in the underlying material. Permeability is moderate in the solum and very rapid in the underlying material.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of these soils are used to grow corn, soybeans, small grain, and grass-legume hay. Native vegetation is a combination of forested and herbaceous wetland.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Mainly in MLRAs 111A, 111B, 111D, 111E, and to lesser extent in MLRAs 108A, 110, 111C, 114A, 114B, and 115A in central Indiana, central and west-central Ohio, and eastern Illinois. The type location is in MLRA 111A. The series is of large extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Hancock County, Indiana, 1925.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 25 cm (Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 25 to 114 cm (Btg, 2Btg horizons).
Aquic conditions: chroma of 2 or less immediately below the mollic epipedon and in all horizons below.

Limestone, clayey, loamy, and silty substratum phases are recognized, and may become new series when the soil survey subsets with these phases are updated. Also, an undrained phase is recognized.

Representative data mapunit for this pedon is DMU ID 153135 in MO 11.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Supporting characterization data is available from the Purdue University Soil Characterization Laboratory for pedon S80IN177-11. Transect data is on file at the MLRA Project Office in Indianapolis.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.