Established Series


The Likes series consists of very deep, excessively drained, rapidly permeable soils. These soils formed in sandy colluvium and alluvium derived from the Ogallala Formation of Miocene-Pliocene age. These soils are on very gently sloping valley flats or gently sloping to moderately steep valley sides. Slope ranges from 1 to 20 percent. The mean annual precipitation is 496 mm (19 in), and the mean annual temperature is 16 degrees C (61 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Mixed, thermic Aridic Ustipsamments

TYPICAL PEDON: Likes loamy fine sand, on a northwest-facing, concave, 10 percent slope in rangeland at an elevation of about 844 meters. (Colors are for dry soil unless otherwise noted.)

A--0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 in); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine sand, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak fine granular structure; soft, very friable; many pores; few wormcasts; few very fine calcium carbonate nodules; strongly effervescent, moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. (13 to 38 cm thick)

BCk1--25 to 76 cm (10 to 30 in); brown (10YR 5/3) loamy fine sand, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; single grained; loose, very friable; common fine pores; few siliceous pebbles; few medium nodules of calcium carbonate; strongly effervescent, moderately alkaline; diffuse smooth boundary. (100 to 160 cm thick)

BCk2--76 to 203 cm (30 to 80 in); very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) moist; single grained; loose; few fine sandstone and siliceous pebbles; some pebbles have thin coating of calcium carbonate on lower side; few fine nodules of calcium carbonate; violently effervescent, moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Gray County, Texas; from the intersection of Farm Roads 1474 and 1321 which is 3.6 kilometers (2.25 miles) east of Lefors, 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) east on Farm Road 1321, 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) northeast on oil field road, 30 meters (100 feet) north of junction with a northwest-southeast oil field road in rangeland; Latitude: 35 degrees, 26 minutes, 31 seconds N; Longitude: 100 degrees, 43 minutes, 47 seconds W; Pond Creek NW, Texas USGS quad; NAD 83.

Soil moisture: An ustic moisture regime bordering on aridic. The soil moisture control section is dry in some or all parts for more than 180 but less than 205 days, cumulative, in normal years. July through August and December through February are the driest months. These soils are intermittently moist in September through November and March through June.
Mean annual soil temperature: 16 to 18 degrees C
Depth to secondary carbonates: less than 50 cm
Solum thickness: more than 203 cm
Particle-size control section: 3 to 10 percent silicate clay

A horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value: 5 or 6, 3 to 5 moist
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: loamy fine sand, loamy sand, or fine sand
Coarse fragments: 0 to 5 percent siliceous pebbles and 0 to 5 percent caliche and sandstone fragments.
Visible secondary calcium carbonate: 0 to 5 percent in the form of nodules.
Effervescence: very slight to strong
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

BCk horizons:
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value: 5 to 7, 4 to 6 moist
Chroma: 3 to 6
Texture: gravelly fine sand, gravelly loamy sand, fine sand, loamy sand, loamy fine sand
Coarse fragments: more than 10 percent siliceous pebbles and 0 to 10 percent caliche and sandstone fragments.
Visible secondary calcium carbonate: 0 to 10 percent in the form of films, filaments, masses, or nodules.
Effervescence: strong or violent
Reaction: moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are Nutivoli and Milsand series. Similar soils also include the Circleback, Jester, Mobeetie and Tivoli series.
Nutivoli series: have a noncalcareous solum and do not have secondary carbonates.
Milsand series: have a drier soil moisture control section for longer periods
Circleback series: has lamellae and is noncalcareous throughout the solum.
Mobeetie series: have a calcic horizon.
Jester and Tivoli series: are moist in the soil moisture control section for longer periods, in addition Tivoli is noncalcareous throughout the solum.

Parent material: sandy alluvial and colluvial sediments derived mainly from the Ogallala Formation of Miocene-Pliocene age.
Landform: valley flat or valley side
Slopes: dominantly 1 to 5 percent but range to 20 percent
Mean annual air temperature: 15 to 17 degrees C (57 to 63 degrees F)
Mean annual precipitation: 432 to 559 mm (17 to 23 in)
Frost-free period: 180 to 220 days
Elevation: 670 to 1,143 meters (2,200 to 3,200 ft)
Thornthwaite annual P-E Index Values: 25 to 36

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Ady, Berda, Guadalupe, Lincoln, Mobeetie, Potter, Springer, Tascosa, and Veal soils.
Ady soils are on higher landscape positions and have an argillic horizon.
Berda and Mobeetie soils are on slightly higher landscape positions and have a cambic horizon.
Guadalupe and Lincoln soils are on floodplains.
Springer soils are on similar landscape positions and have an argillic horizon.
Potter and Tascosa soils are on higher landscape positions and have a loamy-skeletal particle-size control section.
Veal soils are on higher landscape positions and have a calcic horizon.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Excessively drained and rapid permeability. Surface runoff is negligible on 1 to 3 percent slopes, very low on 3 to 5 percent slopes, and low on 5 to 20 percent slopes.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used entirely for rangeland. Climax vegetation on these undulating to rolling soils include Indiangrass, sand bluestem, giant dropseed, little bluestem, sideoats grama, sand lovegrass, sand dropseed, shinoak, yucca, hackberry, littleleaf sumac, sand sagebrush, mentzelia, bundleflower, prairieclover, gauras, primroses, and groundcherries. Cottonwood trees grow in some areas along streams. This soil has been correlated to the Sandy (R-077EY064TX) ecological site in MLRA-77E.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southern High Plains, Breaks (MLRA 77E in LRR H) of Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Kansas. The soil is of minor extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Union County, New Mexico; 1940.

REMARKS: Series revised during the MLRA-77 update of Hansford County, Texas; 2006.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon: 0 to 25 cm (A horizon)
Accumulation of secondary calcium carbonate: 25 to 203 cm (BCk horizons)


TAXONOMIC VERSION: Keys to Soil Taxonomy, Tenth Edition, 2006.

National Cooperative Soil Survey