LOCATION WEA IN+IL OH
The Wea series consists of very deep, well drained soils that are deep or very deep to calcareous, stratified sandy and gravelly outwash. The Wea soils formed in loamy outwash and in the underlying gravelly outwash on kames, outwash plains, outwash terraces, and stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 991 mm (39 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 11.1 degrees C (52 degrees F).
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Argiudolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Wea silt loam, on a 3 percent slope in a cultivated field at an elevation of about 245 meters (805 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 25 cm (10 inches); dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam, brown (10YR 5/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the A horizon is 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches).]
Bt1--25 to 43 cm (10 to 17 inches); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; common very fine and fine tubular pores; common faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt2--43 to 69 cm (17 to 27 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; common very fine and fine tubular pores; many distinct reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 10 percent gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 30 to 63 cm (12 to 25 inches).]
2Bt3--69 to 91 cm (27 to 36 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) gravelly loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common very fine interstitial pores; common faint brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 15 percent gravel; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
2Bt4--91 to 137 cm (36 to 54 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) gravelly sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common distinct reddish brown (5YR 4/3) clay films coating sand grains; 20 percent gravel; neutral; clear smooth boundary. [Combined thickness of the 2Bt horizon is 38 to 89 cm (15 to 35 inches).]
3C--137 to 152 cm (54 to 60 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) gravelly coarse sand; single grain; loose; 25 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Montgomery County, Indiana; 3 miles southeast of New Richmond; 1,056 feet east and 2,376 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 14, T. 20 N., R. 5 W.; USGS Linden, Indiana topographic quadrangle; lat. 40 degrees 10 minutes 42.5 seconds N. and long. 86 degrees 57 minutes 27 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 503618 easting and 4447570 northing, NAD 83.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 102 to 178 cm (40 to 70 inches)
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 25 to 51 cm (10 to 20 inches)
Thickness of the loess mantle: 0 to 51 cm (20 inches)
Depth to carbonates: 102 to 178 cm (40 to 70 inches)
Ap or A horizon:
Value: 2 or 3
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: silt loam or loam
Clay content: 12 to 22 percent
Sand content: 10 to 50 percent
Rock fragment content: 0 to 7 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Texture: silty clay loam, silt loam, clay loam, or loam
Clay content: 20 to 32 percent
Rock fragment content: 0 to 14 percent
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly acid
2Bt or 2BC horizon:
Hue: 5YR to 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: gravelly loam, gravelly sandy loam, or gravelly sandy clay loam
Clay content: 18 to 30 percent in the 2Bt; 8 to 10 percent in the 2BC
Rock fragment content: 15 to 34 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral in the 2Bt; neutral to slightly alkaline in the 2BC
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: gravelly or very gravelly analogs of coarse sand or loamy sand
Clay content: 1 to 5 percent
Sand content: averages more than 85 percent
Rock fragment content: 20 to 56 percent
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Wyanet series. Hochheim, La Rose, Markesan, Rotamer, and Wyanet soils are less than 102 cm (40 inches) to the base of the argillic horizon. Lickcreek soils average more than 5 percent clay and less than 85 percent sand in the lower part of the series control section. Linkville soils average more than 15 percent rock fragments in the middle part of the argillic horizon and are typically more acidic than moderately acid in the lower part of the solum. Plattville soils have a lithic contact within 152 cm (60 inches).
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Wea soils are on kames, outwash plains, outwash terraces, and stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Wea soils formed in 61 to 102 cm (24 to 40 inches) of loamy outwash and in the underlying gravelly outwash in areas of Wisconsinan glaciation. A loess surface mantle up to 51 cm (20 inches) thick is allowed over the loamy outwash. They are deep or very deep to calcareous, stratified sandy and gravelly outwash. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 889 to 1143 mm (35 to 45 inches). Mean annual temperature ranges from 9.4 to 11.7 degrees C (49 to 53 degrees F).
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Westland soils. The somewhat poorly drained Crane and moderately well drained Tippecanoe soils are on lower lying landforms. The well drained Warsaw and Waupecan soils are on similar landforms. The Warsaw soils are shallower to calcareous, stratified sandy and gravelly outwash and the Waupecan soils have a thicker loess mantle. The poorly drained or very poorly drained Westland soils are in depressions.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Potential for surface runoff is negligible to medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the solum and very high in the underlying material. Permeability is moderate in the solum and very rapid in the underlying material.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are used to grow corn, soybeans, and small grain, mostly wheat. A few areas are used for hay and pasture. Native vegetation is prairie grasses (tall grass prairie).
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 108A, 108B, 110, 111A, 111C, 111D, 111E, 114B, and 115C in western Indiana, Illinois, and western Ohio. The type location is in MLRA 111D. The series is of moderate extent.
SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (SSRO) RESPONSIBLE: AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Tippecanoe County, Indiana, 1950.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Mollic epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 25 cm (Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 25 to 137 cm (Bt, 2Bt horizons).
A flooded phase is recognized. This phase will probably become a new series as subset soil surveys are updated.
National Cooperative Soil Survey