LOCATION WICKHAM NC+AL GA SC VAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, thermic Typic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Wickham sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes - cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 6 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 10 inches thick)
Bt1--6 to 11 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) sandy clay loam, moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few fine flakes of mica; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt2--11 to 20 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; common fine flakes of mica; few distinct clay films on faces of peds; few fine rounded gravels, strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt3--20 to 36 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; common fine flakes of mica; few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine rounded gravels; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt subhorizons is 22 to 40 inches.)
BC--36 to 50 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine flakes of mica; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (0 to 23 inches thick)
C1--50 to 54 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sand; single grained; loose; few fine flakes of mica; few coarse gravels; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2--54 to 78 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand; single grained; loose; few fine flakes of mica; few coarse gravels; common pockets of sandy loam; very strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Northampton County, North Carolina, from Rich Square, South 1.5 miles on U.S. 258; southeast 1.3 miles on N.C. 308; southwest 2.6 miles on State Road 1106; west 250 feet on farm lane, Southwest 120 feet into cultivated field. State plane coordinates: x - 2,498,000 y - 900,000.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 36 to more than 60 inches. Rock fragments of rounded gravel range from 0 to 5 percent throughout, but include up to 15 percent in the surface layer of some pedons. The soil ranges from very strongly acid to moderately acid except where the surface has been limed. Flakes of mica and grains of feldspar range from none to common, along with other weatherable minerals. In addition, flakes of mica may range to many in the BC and C horizons in some pedons.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 8. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loam, loamy fine sand, or loamy sand. Eroded pedons have an Ap horizon that is sandy clay loam or clay loam.
The E horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 6. Texture is same as A or Ap horizon.
The BA or BE horizon, where present, has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam.
The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. At least one subhorizon of the Bt horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, typically in the upper part of the Bt. Texture is sandy clay loam, loam, sandy loam, or clay loam. Some pedons contain thin layers of clay or sandy clay. In some pedons, the middle and lower Bt horizons contain high chroma mottles.
The BC horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam. High chroma mottles are present in most pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Some pedons may be mottled with high chroma mottles. Texture ranges from sandy clay loam to loamy sand and sand. Few to many gravel or cobbles are present in the lower subsoil and substratum of some pedons.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Tidings series. Cheaha and Sherless soils contain cobbles or stones in the solum and have bedrock at depths of 20 to 40 inches. Fruithurst soils have a Cr horizon at depths of 40 to 60 inches.
Montonia soils have weathered bedrock at depths of 20 to 40 inches. Rion soils have sola less than 40 inches thick and are underlain by saprolite. Rome soils have sola greater than 60 inches thick and black concretions throughout the solum. Sherwood, Sugargrove, and Tidings soils have bedrock at depths of 40 to 60 inches. State soils have Bt horizons that are entirely 7.5YR or yellower hues.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Wickham soils are nearly level to moderately steep and are on stream terraces in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain and marine terraces in the Lower Coastal Plain. Slopes are dominantly 0 to 8 percent but range as high as 25 percent on narrow escarpments. The soil formed in fluvial and marine
sediments. Mean annual precipitation is about 48 inches, and mean annual temperature is about 61 degrees F, near the type location.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are State soils of the competing series and Altavista, Augusta, Cape Fear, Conetoe, Congaree, Masada, Molena, Roanoke, Tarboro, Thomson, Wahee, and Wando series. Altavista soils are moderately well drained. Augusta soils are somewhat poorly drained. Cape Fear soils are very poorly drained and in a clayey family. Conetoe soils have arenic epipedons. Congaree soils lack Bt horizons and have C horizons of recent sediments. Masada soils are in a clayey family. Molena, Tarboro, and Wando soils are sandy throughout. Roanoke soils are poorly drained and are in a clayey family. Thomson soils are have less clay in the subsoil. Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained and clayey. Conetoe, Masada, Tarboro, and Wando soils are in similar landscape positions to Wickham soils. Congaree soils are on flood plains. The other soils are more poorly drained and are on lower or on positions further from drainageways.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; runoff is medium to rapid; internal drainage is medium; permeability is moderate.
USE AND VEGETATION: About two-thirds of the soil is used for corn, cotton, tobacco, peanuts, small grains, and pasture. The remainder is in forest of pine and hardwoods. Native species include loblolly pine, longleaf pine, southern red oak, white oak, hickory, sweetgum, yellow-poplar, red maple, sourwood, elm,
dogwood, and holly.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: North Carolina, Virginia, Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, and South Carolina. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Raleigh, North Carolina
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Hanover County, Virginia, 1905.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 6 inches (the Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon - the zone from a depth of 6 to 36 inches (the Bt1, Bt2, and Bt3 horizon).
TABULAR SERIES DATA:
SOI-5 Soil Name Slope Airtemp FrFr/Seas Precip Elevation NC0069 WICKHAM 0-25 58- 68 185-250 40-60 15-450 NC0177 WICKHAM 0-6 58- 68 185-250 40-60 15-150
SOI-5 FloodL FloodH Watertable Kind Months Bedrock Hardness NC0069 NONE RARE 6.0-6.0 - 60-60 NC0177 COMMON 6.0-6.0 - 60-60
SOI-5 Depth Texture 3-Inch No-10 Clay% -CEC- NC0069 0- 6 SL FSL L 0-0 90-100 8-15 2-5 NC0069 0- 6 LS LFS 0-0 90-100 4-10 1-3 NC0069 0- 6 SCL CL 0-0 90-100 18-35 4-8 NC0069 6-50 SCL CL L 0-0 90-100 18-35 3-8 NC0069 50-78 VAR - - - -
NC0177 0- 9 SL FSL L 0-0 90-100 8-15 2-5 NC0177 0- 9 LS LFS 0-0 78-100 4-10 1-3 NC0177 9-40 SCL CL L 0-0 90-100 18-35 3-8 NC0177 40-70 VAR - - - -
SOI-5 Depth -pH- O.M. Salin Permeab Shnk-Swll NC0069 0- 6 4.5- 6.0 .5-2. 0- 0 2.0- 6.0 LOW NC0069 0- 6 4.5- 6.0 .5-1. 0- 0 2.0- 6.0 LOW NC0069 0- 6 4.5- 6.0 .5-1. 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0069 6-50 4.5- 6.0 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0069 50-78 - - - -
NC0177 0- 9 4.5- 6.0 .5-2. 0- 0 2.0- 6.0 LOW NC0177 0- 9 4.5- 6.0 .5-1. 0- 0 2.0- 6.0 LOW NC0177 9-40 4.5- 6.0 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW NC0177 40-70 - - - -