LOCATION HAMERLY ND+MN SD
The Hamerly series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in calcareous loamy till. Permeability is moderate in the upper horizons and moderate or moderately slow in the lower horizons. These soils are on flats on lake plains and on convex slopes surrounding shallow depressions and on slight rises on till plains. They have slopes ranging from 0 to 3 percent. Mean annual air temperature is 42 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 19 inches.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Aeric Calciaquolls
TYPICAL PEDON: Hamerly loam - cultivated. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated)
Ap--0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loam, gray (10YR 5/1) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure parting to moderate medium granular; friable; slightly sticky; strong effervescence; abrupt smooth boundary. (Combined A horizons 5 to 18 inches thick)
Bk1--8 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) loam; weak medium and fine subangular blocky structure; friable; violent effervescence; gradual wavy boundary.
Bk2--18 to 25 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few masses of carbonates; violent effervescence; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined Bk horizons 10 to 40 inches thick)
C--25 to 60 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) and olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) loam; common medium distinct gray (2.5Y 5/1) redoximorphic depletions and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) redoximorphic concentrations; weak medium blocky structure; firm; strong effervescence.
TYPE LOCATION: Sargent County, North Dakota; about 1/2 mile south of Gwinner; 2,090 feet south and 95 feet west of the northeast corner, Sec. 26, T. 132 N., R. 56 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The mollic epipedon ranges from 7 to 18 inches in thickness. The top of the calcic horizon is at depths of less than 16 inches, and in some pedons the lower part of the mollic epipedon qualifies as part of the calcic horizon. The soil contains 1 to 10 percent by volume of rock fragments. The 10- to 40-inch particle-size control section has visible gypsum in some pedons. It has 18 to 35 percent noncarbonate clay. Saline and stony phases are recognized.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or 3 and 3 to 5 dry, and chroma of 1 or 2. It commonly is loam but in some pedons it is silt loam, clay loam, silty clay loam or sandy clay loam. It is neutral to moderately alkaline. Where the soil is in native grassland, the A horizon in some pedons does not have carbonates. Some pedons have an ABk horizon.
The Bk horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 3 to 7 and 4 to 8 dry, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is loam or clay loam. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Mottling in the Bk horizon ranges from none to common. Some pedons have Bky, Bkyz, By or BCk horizons.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 4 to 6 and 5 to 8 dry, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is loam or clay loam. It is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Tetonview series. Antler soils have less than 15 percent fine sand and coarser in the upper horizons. Gilby soils have less than 18 percent clay in the upper horizons. Moritz soils do not have rock fragments in the particle-size control section and formed in alluvium. Tetonview soils have O horizons and occur at elevations above 3800 feet.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Hamerly soils are on level and nearly level till plains. They are also on flats and slight rises on till plains and lake plains, and on slightly convex slopes surrounding shallow depressions on till plains. Slopes are short and commonly having gradients of less than 3 percent but range from 0 to 3 percent. The soil is formed in calcareous loamy till. Mean annual air temperature ranges from 36 to 45 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 12 to 24 inches. Frost-free period ranges from 90 to 140 days. Elevation above sea level ranges from 650 to 2700 feet.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: The Hamerly soils are most commonly in a toposequence with
Tonka soils. They are in intermediate positions between the better drained Barnes, Buse and Svea soils and the wetter Parnell, Vallers and Tonka soils. Parnell and Tonka soils are in depressions and Vallers soils are on lower lying flats. Wyard soils are in shallow depressions. They do not have a calcic horizon within a depth of 16 inches.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. Runoff is negligible to medium depending on slope and surface texture. Moderate permeability in the upper horizons and moderate or moderately slow in the lower horizons. Apparent seasonal high water table is at a depth of 1.5 to 3.5 feet at some time during the period April through June.
USE AND VEGETATION: Cultivated areas are used for growing small grains, flax, hay and pasture. Native vegetation is green needlegrass, little bluestem, big bluestem and western wheatgrass.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central and eastern North Dakota, northeastern South Dakota and northwestern Minnesota. The soils are extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Clay County, South Dakota, 1953.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 8 inches (Ap horizon); calcic horizon -the zone from 8 to 25 inches (Bk1 and Bk2 horizons); characteristics associated with wetness - calcic horizon within 16 inches.
Where correlated as moderately well drained phase or with slopes of more than 3 percent should be recorrelated to the Balaton series (Aquic Calciudolls).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Laboratory data numbered S53NDak-32-1, S53NDak-32-2, S50NDak-38-4, and S50NDak-38-7 in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 2, pp. 128-135.
National Cooperative Soil Survey