LOCATION KEWAUNEE WI
The Kewaunee Series consists of very deep, well drained soils formed in clayey till, typically with a thin mantle of loess, on ground moraines, end moraines, and recessional moraines. Slope ranges from 0 to 45 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 762 mm (30 inches). Mean annual air temperature is about 8.9 degrees C (48 degrees F).
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Kewaunee silt loam - on a north-facing slope of 3 percent cropped to alfalfa at an elevation of about 260 meters (852 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Ap--0 to 20 cm (0 to 8 inches); very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [15 to 23 cm (6 to 9 inches) thick]
E--20 to 25 cm (8 to 10 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam; weak thin platy structure; very friable; common fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. [0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 inches) thick]
Bt1--25 to 33 cm (10 to 13 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) silty clay loam; moderate fine and very fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 inches) thick]
2Bt2--33 to 46 cm (13 to 18 inches); reddish brown (5YR 4/3) clay; strong fine and very fine angular blocky structure; firm; common fine roots; many faint clay films on faces of peds; few black (5YR 2/1) accumulations of iron and manganese oxides on faces of peds; about 5 percent gravel; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
2Bt3--46 to 61 cm (18 to 24 inches); reddish brown (5YR 4/3) clay; moderate fine prismatic structure parting to strong fine angular blocky; firm; common fine roots; many faint clay films on faces of peds; few black (5YR 2/1) accumulations of iron and manganese oxides on faces of peds; about 5 percent gravel; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
2Bt4--61 to 74 cm (24 to 29 inches); reddish brown (5YR 4/4) clay; strong medium prismatic structure parting to moderate medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots; common faint clay films on faces of prisms; about 8 percent yellowish dolomite gravel; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the 2Bt horizons ranges from 25 to 76 cm (10 to 30 inches).]
2C--74 to 152 cm (29 to 60 inches); reddish brown (5YR 4/4) silty clay loam; massive; firm; about 5 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Winnebago County, Wisconsin; about 2 1/2 miles northwest of Omro; 2,540 feet north and 200 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 36, T. 19 N., R. 14 E. USGS Eureka, Wisconsin topographic quadrangle; lat. 44 degrees 04 minutes 35 seconds N., and long. 88 degrees 47 minutes 03 seconds W., NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Thickness of the loess mantle: 0 to 51 cm (0 to 20 inches)
Depth to carbonates: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Clay content in the particle-size control section: averages 35 to 60 percent clay
Content of fine sand or coarse in the particle-size control section: averages 10 to 30 percent
Volume of gravel in the till: 2 to 12 percent
Volume of cobbles and stones in the till: 0 to 2 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral in the upper part of the solum and from moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the lower part, and is slightly or moderately alkaline in the substratum.
Some areas are underlain by sandy and gravelly outwash below 40 inches and a gravelly substratum phase is recognized.
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 3 or 4
Chroma: 2 or 3, colors with moist value of 3 have dry value of 6 or more.
Texture: silt loam, silty clay loam, loam, sandy loam, loamy fine sand, clay loam, silty clay loam, silty clay or clay
A horizon [less than 13 cm (5 inches) thick]:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 2 or 3
Chroma: 0 to 2
Texture: silt loam, silty clay loam, loam, sandy loam, or loamy fine sand
E horizon (where present):
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: silt loam, silty clay loam, loam, sandy loam, or loamy fine sand.
2Bt or Bt horizon:
Hue: 2.5YR or 5YR
Value: 3 to 5
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: silty clay or clay but subhorizons of clay loam and silty clay loam are in some pedons.
2C or C horizon:
Hue: 2.5YR or 5YR
Value: 3 to 5
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: clay loam, silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay. Clay content ranges between 35 and 60 percent and sand content coarser than very fine sand ranges between 10 and 30 percent.
Many pedons have soft, segregated lime accumulations in the C horizon.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Vandalia. Beasley and Enott soils have a paralithic contact at 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches). Bledsoe, Estate, Lowell, and Vandalia soils do not have carbonates within the series control section. Bonnell soils are more than 102 cm (40 inches) deep to the base of the argillic horizon and to carbonates. Bucklick and Haggatt soils have a lithic contact at 102 to 152 cm (40 to 60 inches). Coneyville, Faywood, Fredonia, and Milton soils have a lithic contact at 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches). Cosperville, Markland, Mountpleasant, and Muncie soils have hue yellower than 5YR throughout the series control section. Eden, Heverlo, and Solway soils have a paralithic contact at 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches).
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: The Kewaunee soils are on ground, end, and recessional moraines. Slope ranges from 0 to 45 percent. These soils formed in calcareous, clayey till of late Wisconsinan age and commonly in a thin mantle of loess. Less commonly, the thin upper mantle is loamy outwash or a windblown, reworked deposit. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 710 to 815 mm (28 to 32 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges from 7.2 to 10.0 degrees C (45 to 50 degrees F).
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Poygan soils. The somewhat poorly drained Manawa and poorly drained Poygan soils are in a drainage sequence with the Kewaunee soils. Hortonville soils have 25 to 35 percent clay in the argillic horizons. Winneconne soils have more clay in their sola, formed in lacustrine deposits, and have darker colored Ap horizons.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. The potential for surface runoff ranges from low to very high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high (1.41 to 4.23 micrometers per second) or moderately low to moderately high (0.42 to 1.41 micrometer per second). Permeability is moderately slow or slow.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of this soil are used for cropland. Common crops are corn, oats, and alfalfa. Some areas are used for woodland or pastureland. Native vegetation is deciduous forest. Common trees are sugar maple, northern red oak, American basswood, white ash and American elm.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 89, 95A, 95B, and 110 in eastern Wisconsin. The Kewaunee soils are extensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin, 1911.
11/04 510,756 acres have been correlated in 12 soil surveys in Wisconsin. None of the typical pedons in the 12 surveys have redox features. Therefore this revision changes the concept of the Kewaunee series to well drained only.
11/04 Lab data in 2 pedons from Manitowoc County and in 1 pedon from Calumet County shows high bulk density (1.89 to 1.97) in the C horizons (Cd?). Further study is needed to determine if the series concept should be changed to dense till.
11/04 1850 acres in Brown County were correlated as a gravelly substratum phase (sandy & gravelly outwash at 40 to 60 inches). A new series is needed for these acres.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: ochric epipedon - 0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 inches) (Ap, E); argillic horizon - 25 to 74 cm (10 to 29 inches) (Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, Bt4);
ADDITIONAL DATA; Refer to soil survey sample numbers S59WI-015-001, S59WI-039-002, S60WI-071-001, S60WI-071-002 or National Soils Survey Laboratory pedon numbers 40A1538, 40A1539, 40A1540, and 40A1541 for NSSL data on some pedons of Kewaunee.
National Cooperative Soil Survey