LOCATION WHITAKER                IN+IL MI OH

Established Series
Rev. JDL-BGN-DAG
11/2011

WHITAKER SERIES


The Whitaker series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils formed in stratified silty and loamy outwash on outwash plains, lake plains, till plains, valley trains, and stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 991 mm (39 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 11.1 degrees C (52 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Whitaker loam, on a slope of less than 1 percent in a cultivated field at an elevation of about 244 meters (800 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 23 cm (9 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) thick]

E--23 to 43 cm (9 to 17 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; common medium faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions in the matrix; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 30 cm (12 inches) thick]

Btg1--43 to 69 cm (17 to 27 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many distinct gray (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; common fine black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions; 2 percent fine gravel; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Btg2--69 to 99 cm (27 to 39 inches); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many distinct gray (10YR 5/1) clay films on faces of peds; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; common fine black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions; 2 percent fine gravel; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Btg horizon is 36 to 132 cm (14 to 52 inches).]

BC--99 to 122 cm (39 to 48 inches); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) iron depletions in the matrix; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 30 cm (12 inches) thick]

C1--122 to 147 cm (48 to 58 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) stratified silt loam and loam; massive; friable; thin strata of loamy sand and fine sand; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; common fine faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions in the matrix; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.

C2--147 to 218 cm (58 to 86 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) stratified loamy fine sand, fine sand, loamy sand, and sand; massive; very friable and loose; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Marshall County, Indiana; about 2 miles south of Bremen; 1,000 feet north and 2,100 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 11, T. 34 N., R. 3 E.; USGS Bremen, IN topographic quadrangle; lat. 41 degrees 24 minutes 28.6 seconds N. and long. 86 degrees 8 minutes 39.1 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 571529 easting and 4584404 northing, NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 81 to 152 cm (32 to 60 inches)
Thickness of the silty sediments: 0 to 51 cm (20 inches)
Rock fragment content: 0 to 5 percent fine gravel in the solum and 0 to 14 percent in the substratum

Ap horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: silt loam, loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

E or BE horizon:
Hue: 10YR,
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam, or less commonly silty clay loam or silt loam
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

Btg or Bt horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR to 2.5Y
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 1 to 6
Texture: loam, sandy loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam, or less commonly may have up to 25 cm (10 inches) of silty clay loam in the upper part
Reaction: strongly acid or moderately acid in the upper part and moderately acid to neutral in the lower part

BC or BCg horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR to 2.5Y
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 1 to 6
Texture: loam or sandy loam
Reaction: moderately acid to slightly alkaline

C or Cg horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 1 to 6
Texture: stratified loam, silt loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or very fine sandy loam; some pedons have strata of coarse sandy loam, loamy coarse sand, coarse sand, sand, loamy fine sand, fine sand, or loamy sand
Sand content: combined fine sand and very fine sand content averages less than 40 percent
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Angola, Appleton, Ayrshire, Burdett, Crawleyville, Darien, Digby, Mitiwanga, Mongle, Nuhi, Ovid, Shadeland, and Sleeth series. Angola, Mitiwanga, Nuhi, and Shadeland soils have bedrock at depths of less than 102 cm (40 inches). Appleton and Burdett soils have more than 5 percent rock fragments in the upper part of the series control section. Ayrshire soils average more than 40 percent fine sand plus very fine sand in the lower part of the series control section. Crawleyville soils have a reaction that is more acid than slightly acid in the lower part of the series control section. Darien and Ovid soils are not stratified within the series control section. Digby and Sleeth soils average more than 14 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section. Mongle soils have larger rock fragments that are of mixed lithology in the lower part of the series control section.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Whitaker soils are on flats and rises on outwash plains, lake plains, till plains, valley trains, and stream terraces. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Whitaker soils formed in stratified silty and loamy outwash sediments. Some pedons have a mantle of silty sediments up to 51 cm (20 inches) in thickness. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 889 to 1143 mm (35 to 45 inches). Mean annual temperature ranges from 9.4 to 13.9 degrees C (49 to 57 degrees F). Frost-free period is 140 to 210 days. Elevation is 110 to 305 meters (360 to 1,000 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Martinsville and Rensselaer soils. The well drained Martinsville soils are on slightly higher rises. The poorly drained or very poorly drained Rensselaer soils are in swales or depressions.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Somewhat poorly drained. In drained areas, depth to the top of an apparent seasonal high water table ranges from 15 to 61 cm (0.5 to 2 feet) between December and April in normal years. In undrained areas, depth to the top of the apparent seasonal high water table ranges from 15 to 46 cm (0.5 to 1.5 feet) between November and May in normal years. Potential for surface runoff is negligible to medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high. Permeability is moderate. Some areas are subject to rare to frequent periods of flooding.

USE AND VEGETATION: Soils are mostly cropped to corn, soybeans, wheat, and hay. Native vegetation is dominantly deciduous hardwood forest.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 97, 98, 99, 108A, 110, 111A, 111B, 111C, 111D, 114A, 114B, 115A, and 115B in Indiana, southern Michigan, western Ohio, and Illinois. The type location is in MLRA 111C. The series is of large extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Bartholomew County, Indiana, 1936.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 43 cm (17 inches) (Ap, E horizons).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 43 to 99 cm (17 to 39 inches) (Btg1, Btg2 horizons).
Aquic conditions: redoximorphic features present in all horizons between a depth of 23 and 147 cm (9 and 58 inches).

A flooded phase is recognized. The flooded phase may become a new series as subset soil surveys with this phase are updated.

NASIS Data Mapunit ID 401634 represents the typical pedon.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Lab characterization data is available for the typical pedon (MS7602) from the Purdue University Soil Characterization Lab, AES Bulletin 222, Vol. 4, Pg. 232. Transect data (T01IN-099-001) for the typical pedon is on file in the MLRA Project Office, Plymouth, Indiana. Transect shows 40 percent Whitaker soils, 20 percent Baugo soils, 30 percent Crosier soils, and 10 percent Brookston soils.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.