LOCATION SHADELAND          IN+IL
Established Series
Rev. WDH-BC-TJE
05/2007

SHADELAND SERIES


The Shadeland series consists of moderately deep, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in as much as 51 cm (20 inches) of silty material and in the underlying drift and residuum weathered from acid, shale, siltstone, or sandstone. The Shadeland soils are on rock terraces in areas influenced by Wisconsinan glaciation. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 991 mm (39 inches), and the mean annual air temperature is about 11 degrees C (52 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Shadeland silt loam, on a 1 percent slope in a cultivated field at an elevation of about 168 meters (550 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 18 cm (0 to 7 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. [15 to 28 cm (6 to 11 inches) thick]

E--18 to 28 cm (7 to 11 inches); light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many roots; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. [0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 inches) thick]

Btg--28 to 41 cm (11 to 16 inches); light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common roots; thin discontinuous dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 30 cm (0 to 12 inches) thick]

2Btl--41 to 56 cm (16 to 22 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few roots; thin discontinuous dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; many medium prominent light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions; 5 percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [10 to 51 cm (4 to 20 inches) thick]

3Bt2--56 to 76 cm (22 to 30 inches); light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; few fine pores; thin discontinuous light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay films on faces of peds; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. [8 to 25 cm (3 to 10 inches) thick]

3C--76 to 89 cm (30 to 35 inches); light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) very parachannery clay loam; shale arranged in horizontal plates; few roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. [0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 inches) thick]

3R--89 cm (35 inches); strongly cemented sandstone.

TYPE LOCATION: Vermillion County, Indiana; about 2 miles northwest of Eugene; 500 feet east and 1450 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 28, T. 18 N., R. 10 W.; USGS Humrick, Ill.-Ind. topographic quadrangle; UTM Zone 16, 457018 easting and 4426344 northing, NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Thickness of the solum: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)
Depth to lithic contact: 51 to 102 cm (20 to 40 inches)

Ap horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 or 3
Texture: loam or silt loam
Reaction: strongly acid to neutral depending on liming history

E horizon, where present:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 1 to 3
Texture: loam or silt loam

Bt horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 1 to 6
Texture: silty clay loam or silt loam
Reaction: very strongly acid to moderately acid

2Bt horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 1 to 6
Texture: clay loam or loam
Rock fragment content: 1 to 10 percent
Reaction: strongly acid or moderately acid

3Bt horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: silty clay loam, clay loam, very parachannery clay loam, or channery clay loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 20 percent channers or parachanners, dominantly sandstone or shale
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly acid

3R layer: acid, shale, siltstone, or sandstone

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Angola, Appleton, Ayrshire, Burdett, Crawleyville, Darien, Digby, Mitiwanga, Mongle, Nuhi, Ovid, Sleeth, and Whitaker series. All these soils except Angola, Mitiwanga, and Nuhi soils do not have a lithic contact within a depth of 102 cm (40 inches). Angola soils occur in MLRAs 101, 139 and 140 where the mean annual temperature is less than 10 degrees C (50 degrees F). Mitiwanga soils are not underlain by interbedded sandstone, shale, and siltstone bedrock. Nuhi soils have carbonates within the series control section or the underlying bedrock is effervescent.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Shadeland soils are on rock terraces influenced by Wisconsinan glaciation. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. The soils formed in as much as 51 cm (20 inches) of silty material and in the underlying drift and residuum. In places the residuum is from stratified sandstone, shale, and siltstone, but in other areas the residuum is from a single component. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 914 to 1067 mm (36 to 42 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges fro 10 to 12 degrees C (50 to 54 degrees F).

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are Fox, High Gap, Homer, Miami, Ockley, Russell, and Westland soils. The well drained High Gap soils are on higher lying rises on bedrock terraces. The well drained Fox and Ockley soils are on higher lying terraces underlain with sand and gravel. The poorly drained or very poorly drained Westland soils are in depressions on adjacent terraces underlain with sand and gravel. The moderately well drained Miami and well drained Russell soils are on nearby uplands.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The depth to the top of an intermittent high water table ranges from 15 to 61 cm (0.5 to 2.0 feet) between December and April in normal years. The potential for surface runoff is low to high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the solum. Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the solum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cropped to corn, soybeans, wheat, and meadow. Some areas are pasture or woodlots. Native vegetation is hardwood forests of beech, sugar maple, oak, white ash, American elm, and hickory.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Indiana and Illinois; MLRAs 108A, 110, 111D, 114B, and 115A. The type location is in MLRA 108A. The series is of small extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Tippecanoe County, Indiana, 1955.

REMARKS: Prime farmland where drained.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 28 cm (Ap, E horizons).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 28 to 76 cm (Btg, 2Bt, 3Bt horizons).
Lithic contact: at 89 cm (top of the 3R layer).

A soft bedrock phase is recognized.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.