LOCATION APPLETON NY
The Appleton series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained soils formed in calcareous loamy till. They are on low ground moraines and on foot slopes of glaciated hills, ridges, and drumlins. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the surface and subsoil, and moderately low or moderately high in the substratum. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Mean annual temperature is 8 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation is 995 mm.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Aeric Endoaqualfs
TYPICAL PEDON: Appleton silt loam, on a 2 percent slope in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)
Ap-- 0 to 20 cm, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam; moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; neutral; many fine roots; 10 percent rock fragments; abrupt smooth boundary. (15 to 30 cm thick.)
E-- 20 to 41 cm, light brown (7.5YR 6/3) loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; many, fine and medium, prominent grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) iron depletions and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation within the matrix; 10 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 25 cm thick.)
Bt-- 41 to 76 cm, reddish brown (5YR 4/3) gravelly silt loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; firm; brown (7.5YR 5/2) ped faces; common brown (7.5YR 5/2) clay films on all faces of peds; pockets or fingers of material from E horizon showing bleached sand grains occur on ped faces in the upper 2 to 4 inches; few fine roots in upper part; many, medium, prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation within the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; neutral; clear, wavy boundary. (15 to 51 cm thick.)
C1-- 76 to 137 cm, reddish gray (5YR 5/2) fine gravelly loam; massive; firm; few, faint, brown (7.5YR 5/2) iron depletions within the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
C2-- 137 to 183 cm, reddish brown (5YR 5/3) fine gravelly loam; massive; firm; few, faint, brown (7.5YR 5/2) iron depletions within the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline.
TYPE LOCATION: Genesee County, New York; town of LeRoy, 2,375 feet west of Hebbard Road and North Road, 75 feet north of North Road. USGS Churchville, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 43 degrees, 01 minutes, 29 seconds N. and Longitude 77 degrees, 55 minutes, 55 seconds W. NAD 1927.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 51 to 91 cm and depth to carbonates ranges from 46 to 81 cm. Redoximorphic features consisting of iron accumulation or depletions occur within 51 cm of the mineral soil surface. Depth to bedrock is greater than 152 cm. Content of rock fragments, mainly gravel, channers and cobbles, range from 5 to 30 percent by volume in the surface and subsoil, and from 10 to 60 percent in the substratum.
The A or Ap horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 1 or 3. Texture in the fine earth fraction is loam, silt loam or fine sandy loam. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral.
The E horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture in the fine earth fraction is fine sandy loam, loam, or silt loam. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to slightly alkaline. Some pedons have a BE or B/E horizon with colors and textures similar to the E and B horizons.
The B horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. Iron depletions and concentrations are few to many. Faces of peds have chroma of 2. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, or silt loam. Clay content is between 18 and 27 percent. Some pedons lack interfingering of E material into the upper part of the B horizon. Reaction of the Bt horizon ranges from moderately acid to slightly alkaline.
The C horizon has hue of 5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is fine sandy loam, loam or silt loam. Structure is platy or the horizon is massive. Consistence is firm or very firm. Reaction is slightly or moderately alkaline. Some pedons have a 2C horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
COMPETING SERIES: The
Whitaker series are members of the same family. Angola, Mitinwanga, Nuhi, and Shadeland soils have bedrock within a depth of 40 inches or less. Ayrshire, Crawleyville, Sleeth, and Whitaker soils have thicker sola. Burdett and Digby soils have a lithologic discontinuity. Darien and Ovid soils have higher clay content in the subsoil. Mongle soils formed in residual materials, have thicker sola, and lack free carbonates in the series control section.
Shebeon(MI) are similar series. Aubbeenaubbee, Crosier, Grantfork, Haskins, and Shebeon soils have dense till. Luther soils have thicker sola and Pinicon soils have a lithologic discontinuity. The
Orpark soils are also members of related families. All of these soils lack an argillic horizon.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Appleton soils are nearly level to sloping soils on till plains, hills, ridges, and drumlins. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. These soils developed in calcareous, medium textured till of Wisconsin age derived from limestone, sandstone and shale and a small component of granitic erratics. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 790 to 1440 mm, mean annual temperature ranges from 5 to 10 degrees C, and the mean annual frost-free season ranges from 100 to 190 days. The elevation ranges from 35 to 605 meters above sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the
Palmyra soils. Appleton soils are the somewhat poorly drained members of drainage sequences which include the well drained Honeoye, Lansing and Ontario soils, moderately well drained Conesus, Hilton, and Lima soils and the poorly and very poorly drained Lyons soils. Howard and Palmyra soils and their wetter associates are on nearby glacial outwash terraces. Dunkirk and Hudson soils and their wetter associates are nearby on lacustrine plains.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. The potential for surface runoff is negligible to very high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the surface and subsoil, and moderately low or moderately high in the substratum.
USE AND VEGETATION: Mainly cleared areas are used for growing hay, oats, corn, vegetables and pasture plants. Many areas are drained. Idle areas revert quickly to aspen, alder, dogwood, wild apple, thornapple and white ash. Woodlots contain sugar, red and silver maples, basswood, black cherry, ash, hemlock and white pine.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Western, central and north-eastern New York. MLRAs 101, 140, 142, and 144A. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Amherst, Massachusetts
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Wyoming County, New York, 1969.
REMARKS: Previous classification placed Appleton in the great group of Ochraqualfs. This series has been reclassified in the great group of Endoaqualfs. The dominance of the series as previously mapped classified as Endoaqualfs rather than Epiaqualfs. A new series will need to be considered for areas that classify as Epiaqualfs.
Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in the typical pedon:
1) Ochric epipedon - from 0 to 20 cm (Ap horizon).
2) Argillic horizon - from 41 to 76 cm (Bt horizon).
3) Aeric subgroup - high chroma matrix colors in one or more horizons above 76 cm (Bt horizon).
4) Redoximorphic features - Iron accumulations and depletions (E, Bt, and C horizons).
National Cooperative Soil Survey