LOCATION DAVIDSON           GA+AL NC SC VA
Established Series
Rev. LWF
07/1999

DAVIDSON SERIES


The Davidson series consists of very deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in materials weathered from dark colored rocks high in ferromagnesian minerals. These soils are on gently sloping to moderately steep uplands in the Piedmont. Slopes are commonly 2 to 15 percent but range up to 25 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, kaolinitic, thermic Rhodic Kandiudults

TYPICAL PEDON: Davidson loam--cultivated. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 7 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots; few fine black concretions; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick)

Bt1--7 to 12 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; few fine black concretions; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt2--12 to 23 inches; dark red (10R 3/6) clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; few distinct clay films on faces of peds; few fine black concretions; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt3--23 to 53 inches; dark red (10R 3/6) clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots in upper part; common prominent clay films on faces of peds; few quartz gravel; few fine black concretions; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bt4--53 to 72 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) clay; few medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular and angular blocky structure; firm; many prominent clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid. (combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 50 to more than 60 inches)

TYPE LOCATION: Jones County, Georgia; 3.7 miles north of Gray, Georgia; 0.3 mile east of Bradley on paved county road; 0.5 mile south on dirt road; 0.9 mile north; 50 feet west of farm road.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness is more than 60 inches and depth to bedrock is more than 6 feet. Reaction of all horizons ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid, except those surface soils which have been limed. Concretions range from few to common in the upper part of most pedons. Flakes of mica are none to common. Thin gravel lines are in some pedons below 60 inches.

The A horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 through 6. It is loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, or clay.

The Bt horizons have hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 2.5 or 3, and chroma of 2 through 8. There may be none to common mottles in shades of yellow and red in the middle and lower horizons. The particle-size control section averages 40 to 75 percent clay. The Bt horizons are clay loam or clay. The lower Bt horizons below 60 inches are sandy clay loam, clay loam, or clay.

COMPETING SERIES: This is the Greenville series of the same family and the Anniston, Coronaca, Cumberland, Decatur, Dyke, Gwinnett, Nacogdoches, Rabun, and Rapidan series of closely related families. Greenville soils formed in clayey marine sediments high in sand. Anniston soils have more than 35 percent silt in the control section and commonly contain chert or sandstone gravel and cobble throughout. Coronaca and Cumberland soils have more than 35 percent base saturation. Decatur soils formed in old alluvium or residuum weathered from limestone and commonly contain fragments of chert. Dyke, Rabun, and Rapidan soils occur in mesic temperature regimes and have thinner sola. Gwinnett soils have sola less than 40 inches thick. Lloyd soils have more than 20 percent decrease in clay from the maximum within 60 inches below the surface. Nacogdoches soils are dominated by tubular halloysite in the Bt horizon and have regoliths high in glauconite.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Davidson soils are on gently sloping to moderately steep uplands in the Piedmont. Slopes are commonly 2 to 15 percent but may range up to 25 percent. Elevation is 500 to 1100 feet. Average annual temperature is 59 to 65 degrees F., and average annual precipitation is 43 to 50 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Gwinnett and Lloyd series and the Cecil, Enon, Iredell, Mecklenburg, Musella, and Wilkes series. Cecil soils have a moist color value of 4 or more. Enon soils have strong brown or yellowish brown subsoils, mixed mineralogy, and greater than 35 percent base saturation. Iredell soils have a very plastic subsoil and are smectitic. Mecklenburg soils have a solum less than 45 inches thick, mixed mineralogy, and base saturation of more than 35 percent. Musella and Wilkes soils have solum thickness less than 20 inches and mixed mineralogy.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium to rapid runoff; moderate permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Cleared areas are used for small grain, corn, cotton, soybeans, grain sorghum, hay, and pasture. The original forest consisted of white oak, red oak, post oak, hickory, yellow-poplar, and cedar; reforested areas are in shortleaf and loblolly pine.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Piedmont areas of Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Raleigh, North Carolina

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Davidson County, North Carolina; 1916.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Samples from three pedons were tested in Beltsville laboratory to determine mineralogy for family placement. Base saturation by sum of cations ranged from 2 to 12 percent for 4 pedons as determined by Beltsville laboratory.

REMARKS: Diagnostic features and horizons recognized in this pedon are:
Rhodic colors - the colors with value of 3 or less throughout.
Ochric epipedon - from the surface to a depth of 7 inches (Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon - the zone from approximately 7 to 72 inches (Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, and Bt4 horizons).
Kandic horizon - the zone from approximately 7 to 72 inches with low activity clay in most of the upper 40 inches (Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, and Bt4 horizons).

Revised 9/97 RLV

MLRA = 136

TABULAR SERIES DATA:

SOI-5  Soil Name   Slope  Airtemp FrFr/Seas Precip  Elevation
GA0014 DAVIDSON    2- 25   59- 65  210-230  43- 50   500-1100 

SOI-5 FloodL FloodH Watertable Kind Months Bedrock Hardness GA0014 NONE 6.0-6.0 - 60-60

SOI-5 Depth Texture 3-Inch No-10 Clay% -CEC- GA0014 0- 7 L 0- 0 84-100 15-27 3.0-5.0 GA0014 0- 7 CL SCL 0- 0 84-100 20-35 3.5-6.0 GA0014 0- 7 C 0- 0 95-100 40-65 3.5-6.0 GA0014 7-12 CL 0- 0 90-100 27-40 4.0-6.5 GA0014 12-53 C 0- 0 95-100 40-75 3.0-6.0 GA0014 53-72 C CL SCL 0- 0 90-100 25-60 -

SOI-5 Depth -pH- O.M. Salin Permeab Shnk-Swll GA0014 0- 7 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW GA0014 0- 7 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW GA0014 0- 7 4.5- 6.5 .5-2. 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW GA0014 7-12 4.5- 6.5 0.-.5 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW GA0014 12-53 4.5- 6.5 0.-.2 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW GA0014 53-72 4.5- 6.5 0.-.2 0- 0 0.6- 2.0 LOW


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.