LOCATION HALFADAY MIEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Sandy, mixed, frigid Oxyaquic Haplorthods
TYPICAL PEDON: Halfaday sand - on a 3 percent northwest-facing slope in a forested area. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated).
Oi--0 to 2 centimeters; slightly decomposed forest litter.
Oa--2 to 5 centimeters; black (N 2.5/0) well decomposed forest litter, weak very fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; many very fine to coarse roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (0 to 5 centimeters thick)
E--5 to 23 centimeters; pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) sand, light gray (7.5YR 7/1) dry; weak very fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; common very fine to coarse roots; about 2 percent gravel; very strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary. (5 to 25 centimeters thick)
Bhs--23 to 25 centimeters; dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; many very fine to coarse roots; about 2 percent gravel; extremely acid; abrupt irregular boundary. (2 to 15 centimeters thick)
Bs1--25 to 51 centimeters; dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine to medium roots; discontinuous vertical tongues of dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) and strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) strongly cemented ortstein occupy 20 percent (20 of 102 centimeters) of horizon and extend into the Bs2 horizon to a depth of 127 centimeters, tongues are 5to 13 centimeters wide and 15 to 61 centimeters apart; about 2 percent gravel; very strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. (15 to 41 centimeters thick)
Bs2--51 to 89 centimeters; brown (7.5YR 4/4) sand; very fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation at 69 to 89 centimeters; few very fine to medium roots; discontinuous vertical tongues of dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) and strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) strongly cemented ortstein occupy 12 percent (13 of 102 centimeters) of horizon, tongues are 5 to 8 centimeters wide and 25 to 76 centimeters apart; about 4 percent gravel; very strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. (0 to 51 centimeters)
BC--89 to 127 centimeters; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sand; single grain; loose; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; about 4 percent gravel; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 51 centimeters thick)
C--127 to 203 centimeters; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single grain; loose; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; about 4 percent gravel; slightly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Alger County, Michigan; About 3 miles south of Melstrand, Michigan, 800 feet west and 300 feet south of the northeast corner of section 4, T. 46 N., R. 17 W.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The depth to the C horizon ranges from 86 to 140 centimeters. Gravel content ranges from 0 to 10 percent throughout the pedon. Lenses of fine sand and coarse sand can be found throughout the solum in some pedons. Reaction of the solum ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid. Depth to redoximorphic features ranges from 61 to 100 centimeters.
The A horizon, where present has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or is neutral, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 0 to 2.
The E horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 or 3. The A and E horizons are sand or loamy sand.
The Bhs horizon has hue of 5YR, or 7.5YR; value and chroma of 2 or 3. It is sand or loamy sand.
The Bs horizons have hue of 5YR, 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sand or loamy sand.
The BC horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value and chroma of 4 to 6.
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR; value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 3 to 6. In some pedons it may be stratified with fine sands. It ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Croswell, Croswood, Cublake, Gilchrist, Heinz, Manitowish, Mattix, Neconish, and Noseum series. Croswell soils have spodic horizons that are lower in sesquioxides and organic carbon. Croswood soils have 2C horizons of loamy glacial till at 102 to 152 centimeters. Cublake soils are underlain by stratified loamy and sandy lacustrine materials. Gilchrist soils have 2C horizons of sandy loam glacial till at 51 to 102 centimeters. Manitowish soils have a loamy mantle 38 to 51 centimeters thick. Mattix soils have a loamy mantle 38 to 76 centimeters thick and are saturated from 15 to 46 centimeters during the winter. Neconish soils have a particle size control section that averages 50 percent or more fine sand. Noseum soils have a loamy mantle 25 to 51 centimeters thick
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Halfaday soils formed in glaciofluvial deposits on nearly level areas of stream terraces, outwash plains, lake plains, and ground moraines. Slopes range from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual temperature ranges from 4 to 7 degrees C, and mean annual precipitation ranges from 660 to 860 millimeters.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Au Gres, Croswell, Ingalls, Kalkaska, and Rousseau soils. Principal well drained associated soils are the Kalkaska and Rousseau soils and they are on higher landscape positions. Croswell soils are located on similar landscape positions but do not have darker colored upper subsoil. The somewhat poorly drained Au Gres and Ingalls soils are in lower landscape positions.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Moderately well drained. Surface runoff is low. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is high or very high. The depth to representative wet soil moisture status ranges from 61 to 122 centimeters below the surface at times during the months of March, April, May, June, October, November, and December.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of this soil are forested. Overstory vegetation consists of sugar maple, quaking aspen, big tooth aspen, paper birch, and red maple. Some of the common forest understory vegetation includes sugar maple seedlings, lowbush blueberry, spinulose woodfern, goldthread, American fly honeysuckle, Solomons-seal, rosy twistedstalk, eastern teaberry, shining clubmoss, Canada mayflower, and kinnikinnick.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Eastern Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. The Halfaday series is inextensive.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: St. Paul, Minnesota
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Chippewa County, 1984.
REMARKS: Classification adjusted to agree with ST Issue #17 on 6 Sept 94 by CLG. Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are: albic horizon - the zone from 5 to 23 centimeters (E horizon); spodic horizon - the zone from 23 to 89 centimeters (Bhs, Bs1 and Bs2 horizons). Oxyaquic subgroup - the soil is saturated with water in one or more layers within 100 cm of the mineral surface for one month or more per year in most years (Bs2,BC, and C horizons). Udic soil moisture regime.