LOCATION PALMS MI+IA IL IN MA MN NY PA VA WI
The Palms series consist of very deep, very poorly drained soils formed in herbaceous organic materials 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 in) thick and the underlying loamy deposits in closed depressions on moraines, lake plains, till plains, outwash plains, and hillside seep areas, and on backswamps of flood plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 889 mm (35 in), and mean annual temperature is about 10.0 degrees C (50 degrees F).
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, mixed, euic, mesic Terric Haplosaprists
TYPICAL PEDON: Palms muck, on 1 percent slope under marsh vegetation at an elevation of 198 meters (648 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Oa1--0 to 36 cm (14 in); black (10YR 2/1) broken face and rubbed muck (sapric material); about 5 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; moderate medium granular structure; slightly sticky; about 20 to 25 percent mineral material; slightly acid [pH 6.5 in water]; abrupt smooth boundary.
Oa2--36 to 71 cm (14 to 28 in); black (10YR 2/1) broken face and rubbed muck (sapric material); about 5 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive parting to weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; 10 to 20 percent mineral material; strongly acid [pH 5.5 in water]; clear smooth boundary.
Oa3--71 to 89 cm (28 to 35 in); black (N 2.5/) rubbed muck (sapric material); about 5 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; 10 to 20 percent mineral material; moderately acid [pH 6.0 in water]; abrupt smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of the Oa horizon is 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 in].)
Cg--89 to 203 cm (35 to 80 inches); gray (10YR 5/1) clay loam; massive; friable; common medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) masses of oxidized iron in the matrix; neutral in upper part, slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline in lower part.
TYPE LOCATION: Gratiot County, Michigan; north of the flood plain of the Maple River and about 200 feet south of the upland; 1,420 feet south and 820 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 27, T. 9 N., R. 2 W.; USGS Pompeii topographic quadrangle; lat. 43 degrees 8 minutes 31.3 seconds N. and long. 84 degrees 31 minutes 34.7 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 701165 easting and 4779557 northing, NAD 83.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Depth to the loamy C horizon: 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 inches)
Organic material: derived primarily from herbaceous plants, but some layers contain as much as 15 percent woody material
Surface tier (Oa1 or Oap horizon):
Hue: 5YR to 10YR, or is neutral
Value: 2, 2.5, or 3
Chroma: 0 to 2
Organic material: dominantly muck (sapric material), or less commonly mucky peat (hemic material)
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly alkaline
Subsurface and bottom tiers (Oa, Oe, or Oi horizons):
Hue: 5YR to 10YR, or is neutral
Value: 2 to 4
Chroma: 0 to 3
Organic material: some pedons have thin layers less than 25 cm (10 inches) thick of mucky peat (hemic material) or thin layers less than 13 cm (5 inches) thick of fibric material; some pedons have a thin layer of sedimentary peat above the C horizon.
Reaction: strongly acid to slightly alkaline, some pedons have carbonates
Some pedons have a thin A horizon above the C horizon.
C or Cg horizon:
Hue: 10YR to 5Y, 5GY, or is neutral
Value: 3 to 7
Chroma: 0 to 4
Texture: loamy very fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam, or the gravelly analogues of these textures; thin strata of fine sand, loamy sand, or silt in some pedons
Clay content: upper 30 cm (12 inches) averages between 10 and 35 percent clay
Rock fragment content: 0 to 25 percent gravel to stones
Reaction: moderately acid to moderately alkaline; some pedons contain carbonates
Sandy substratum, gravelly substratum, and overwash phases are recognized.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Shalcar series. Klossner soils have A horizons directly below the organic matter that is more than 20 cm (8 inches) thick. Linwood soils formed mainly in woody fibers. Medo soils have less than 10 percent clay in the lower one third of the series control section. Natchaug soils are in areas where the mean annual precipitation is greater than 1092 mm (43 inches). Philbon soils have dominantly fibric and hemic material in the upper 30 cm (12 inches). Shalcar soils have a difference between mean annual summer and mean annual winter temperatures that is less than 26 degrees F.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Palms soils are in closed depressions on lake plains, till plains, outwash plains, moraines, hillside seep areas, and in backswamps on flood plains. Slope ranges from 0 to 6 percent. Palms soils formed herbaceous organic materials and the underlying loamy deposits. The soils on nearby uplands are generally loamy. Mean annual temperature ranges from 8.9 to 11.7 degrees C (48 to 53 degrees F). Mean annual precipitation ranges from 762 to 1092 mm (30 to 43 inches). Frost-free period is 120 to 180 days. Elevation is 177 to 466 meters (580 to 1,530 feet) above mean sea level.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: : Palms soils are associated oin the landscape with the very poorly drained
Henrietta as well as the poorly drained
Gilford soils. Houghton soils formed in herbaceous organic deposits more than 130 cm (51 in) thick. Adrian soils are underlain by sandy material at depth of 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 in). Edwards soils are underlain by marly material at depth of 41 to 130 cm (16 to 51 in). Henrietta soils are in transition areas from the organic depressions to the surrounding mineral soils, and formed in organic materials less than 41 cm (16 in) thick. Barry and Gilford soils formed in the surrounding loamy or loamy over sandy material.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Very poorly drained. Depth to the top of an apparent seasonal high water table ranges from 30 cm (1 foot) above the surface to 30 cm (1 foot) below the surface between November and May in normal years. Potential for surface runoff is negligible. Saturated hydraulic conductivity ranges from moderately high or high in the organic material and moderately high to low in the loamy material. Permeability is moderately slow to moderately rapid in the organic material and moderate or moderately slow in the loamy material.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of this soil are in marsh vegetation of grasses, reeds, and sedges; and alder, aspen, willow, and dogwood. Some areas have been drained and are used for pasture, corn, and some truck crops.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: MLRAs 89, 95A, 95B, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102A, 103, 104, 105, 108A, 108B, 110, 111A, 111B, 111C, 111D, 115C, 127, 140, 142, 144A, 144B, and 145 in the southern parts of lower Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, and other northeastern states. The series is of large extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: AMHERST, MASSACHUSETTS
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Sanilac County, Michigan; 1955.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon include:
1. Muck (sapric material) from the surface to a depth of 89 cm (35 in) (Oa1, Oa2, and Oa3 horizons).
2. Terric feature: mineral material from a depth of 89 to 203 cm (35 to 80 in) (Cg horizon).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Lab characterization data is available from the National Soil Survey Laboratory, Lincoln, NE.
National Cooperative Soil Survey