LOCATION TOECANE NCEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, active, mesic Humic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Toecane cobbly loam on a 28 percent east-facing slope at 3,720 feet elevation--forested. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)
Oi--0 to 1 inches; slightly decomposed leaves, twigs, and roots.
A--1 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) cobbly loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many very fine and fine and few medium roots; common very fine flakes of mica; 15 percent by volume cobbles and pebbles; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
AE--4 to 9 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) cobbly loam; brown (10YR 4/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; friable; many very fine and fine roots; common very fine and fine flakes of mica; 20 percent by volume cobbles and pebbles; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizons is 6 to 10 inches.)
Bt1--9 to 13 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) very cobbly loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; common very fine and fine flakes of mica; 35 percent by volume cobbles and pebbles; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bt2--13 to 25 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) very cobbly sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; few faint clay films on faces of peds; common very fine and fine flakes of mica; 40 percent by volume cobbles, pebbles, and a few stones; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizons is 10 to 40 inches.)
BC--25 to 31 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) very cobbly sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; common very fine and fine flakes of mica; 45 percent by volume cobbles, stones, and pebbles; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick)
C--31 to 64 inches; multicolored extremely cobbly loamy sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; common very fine and fine flakes of mica; 70 percent by volume cobbles, stones, and pebbles; moderately acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Yancey County, North Carolina; about 3.7 miles northwest of North Carolina Highway 80S on U.S. Forest Service Road 239 (Locust Creek Road); 50 feet south of White Oak Creek, in a road cut; USGS Celo topographic quadrangle; lat. 35 degrees 49 minutes 43 seconds N. and long. 82 degrees 13 minutes 56 seconds W, NAD 27.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 30 to more than 60 inches. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Content of mica flakes is few or common in the upper 40 inches of the profile and few to many below 40 inches. Rock fragments range from 15 to 60 percent in the A and B horizons, and from 15 to 80 percent in the C horizon. Average content of rock fragments is 35 to 80 percent by volume in the particle-size control section. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to moderately acid, except where surface layers have been limed.
The A, AE, or AB horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam.
The E or EB horizon, where percent, has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 6. Some pedons have mottles in shades of red, brown, yellow, or olive. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is loamy coarse sand, loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Some pedons have mottles in shades of red, brown, yellow, or olive. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. Average clay content ranges from 15 to 25 percent.
The BC horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5Y to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Some pedons have mottles in shades of red, brown, yellow, or olive. Texture of the fine-earth fraction is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam.
The C horizon is multicolored or has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. Mottles, if present, are in shades of red, brown, yellow, or olive. Texture may be variable, but is commonly sand, loamy sand, loamy fine sand, coarse sandy loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam in the fine-earth fraction. Some pedons have thin layers of loam.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the Thunder and Widgett (T) series. Thunder soils average more than 25 percent clay in the Bt horizon. Widgett soils have lithic contact at 20 to 40 inches.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Toecane soils are along drainageways, on benches and fans, and in coves in the Blue Ridge (MLRA 130). The mean annual air temperature ranges from 46 to 57 degrees F., the frost-free season ranges from 100 to 150 days, and the average annual rainfall ranges from 46 to 64 inches. Elevation ranges from 1,500 to 4,800 feet. Slope ranges from 2 to 95 percent, but is dominantly 15 to 50 percent. These soils formed in colluvium derived from materials weathered primarily from felsic high-grade metamorphic and igneous rocks such as metagraywacke, gneiss, schist, and granite.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Ashe, Buladean, Cashiers, Chandler, Chestnut, Cleveland, Cullasaja, Edneytown, Edneyville, Evard, Fannin, Greenlee, Haywood, Huntdale, Micaville, Pigeonroost, Plott, Porters, Saluda, Saunook, Sylva, Trimont, Tusquitee, Tuckasegee, Unaka, Watauga and Whiteside series in addition to the competing Thunder series. Ashe, Buladean, Cashiers, Chandler, Chestnut, Cleveland, Edneytown, Edneyville, Evard, Fannin, Huntdale, Micaville, Plott, Pigeonroost, Saluda, Trimont, Unaka and Watauga soils formed in residuum affected by soil creep in the upper part, have C horizons of saprolite, and are on locally higher summits and side slopes. Greenlee soils do not have A horizons with value of 3 or less that are thicker than 6 inches. Saunook soils are in a fine-loamy family and have an argillic horizon. Tusquitee soils are in a coarse-loamy family. Cullasaja, Haywood, and Tuckasegee soils have umbric epipedons. Sylva soils are poorly drained and Whiteside soils are moderately well drained. In addition, Sylva and Whiteside soils are on less-sloping colluvial positions.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part and rapid in the lower part. Surface runoff is very low on gentle slopes where the forest litter has not been disturbed and medium or high on very steep slopes where litter has been removed. The seasonal high water table is greater than 6 feet throughout most of the year. These soils receive surface and subsurface water from surrounding uplands and seeps and springs are common.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of Toecane soils are used for woodland. Native species include yellow-poplar, eastern hemlock, yellow birch, sweet birch, northern red oak, black cherry, red maple, Fraser magnolia and cucumbertree. At elevations above 4,000 feet yellow birch replaces yellow-poplar as a common tree. Common understory plants include rhododendron, striped maple, serviceberry, Carolina silverbell, trillium, hay scented fern, Solomon's seal, yellow mandarin, woodfern, and New York fern. Some of the less stony or bouldery areas are used for pasture.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Blue Ridge (MLRA 130) of North Carolina and possibly Tennessee and Virginia. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Yancey County, North Carolina; 1997.
REMARKS: Toecane soils are associated with residual soils that are on relatively stable landscapes. These soils were formerly included with the Cullasaja or Greenlee series. Cullasaja soils have an umbric epipedon and Greenlee have an ochric epipedon and lack the umbric intergrade property.
Particle-size analysis of the fine-earth fraction of three pedons of Toecane indicate the clay content of the Bt horizons commonly range from about 15 to 25 percent. Most pedons have clay content that doubles from the eluvial horizon (AE) to the illuvial horizon (Bt). Weighted average clay content from a depth of 10 to 40 inches ranges from about 12 to 18 percent.
The 7/98 revision places this soil in active CEC activity class. Class placement is based on similar soils in the region
such as Thunder, Edneyville and Edneytown.
Diagnostic horizons and soil characteristics recognized in this pedon are:
Humic feature - zone from soil surface to 8 inches (A and E horizons) with moist value of 3 or less and dry value of 5 or less.
Ochric epipedon - the zone from the soil surface to 8 inches (A and AE horizons).
Argillic horizon - the zone from 8 to 30 inches (Bt and BC horizons).
Loamy-skeletal feature - average content of more than 35 percent by volume rock fragments in the particle-size control section (8 to 28 inch depth).
SIR = NC0228
MLRA = 130
Revised: 9/94-BPS,JAK; 10/95-BPS,JAK; 9/96-BPS,DHK; 7/98-DHK; 3/03-MKC
ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data is available from North Carolina State University, Department of Soil Science, Raleigh, NC for the following pedons: S92NC-199-008.
NASIS Data Map Unit ID: NASIS data for the typical pedon in Yancey County, NC are represented by DMU ID # 370233.