LOCATION BRADDOCK VA+MD NC TN WV
The Braddock series consists of very deep, well drained, and moderately permeable soils formed in colluvium and alluvium derived dominantly from a mixture of crystalline rocks. They are on footslopes of ridges and colluvial fans and adjacent high terraces. Mean and annual precipitation is about 40 inches and mean annual temperature is about 57 degrees F near the type location. Slopes range from 0 to 45 percent.
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Braddock loam - cultivated. (Colors are for moist soil.)
Ap--0 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam; moderate fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 12 inches thick)
Bt1--9 to 13 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay loam; weak fine and very fine subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few distinct clay films on faces of peds; few fine roots; 2 percent fine weathered granitic and greenstone gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt2--13 to 38 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) clay; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky, slightly plastic; few distinct films on faces of peds; 10 percent weathered greenstone and granitic gravel; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bt3--38 to 48 inches; red (2.5YR 4/8) gravelly clay loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky, slightly plastic; common distinct clay films on faces of peds; 25 percent weathered greenstone and granitic gravel; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (Combined thickness of Bt horizon is 20 to 60 inches)
2C--48 to 85 inches; mottled yellowish red, strong brown, white red and black granitic saprolite that crushes easily to loam; massive rock controlled structure; friable; many flakes of mica; strongly acid. (0 to 60 or more inches thick)
TYPE LOCATION: Madison County, Virginia; 2 miles east of Wolftown on south side of State Road 662 at its junction with State Road 663.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 60 inches or more. Depth to hard bedrock is more than 60 inches. Thickness of the colluvium or alluvium is quite variable and ranges from about three to more than 20 feet. Content of rock fragments ranges from 0 to 35 percent in the A, Ap, E, BA, and BE horizons and the upper part of the Bt horizon; and from 0 to 60 percent in the lower part of the Bt horizon and the C horizon. Rock fragments consist mostly of gravel, cobbles, and stones of igneous and metamorphic rock. Flakes of mica are in some pedons. The soil is extremely acid through strongly acid unless limed.
The A horizon, where present, has hue of 5YR through 10YR, value of 2 through 5, and chroma of 1 through 6. Where value is 2 or 3, the horizon is less than 6 inches thick. The A horizon has texture of sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction.
The Ap horizon, where present, has hue of 5YR through 10YR, value of 2 through 5, and chroma of 1 through 6. Where value is 2 or 3, the horizon is less than 6 inches thick. The A horizon has texture of sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam in the fine earth fraction. Some eroded pedons have a surface layer that is sandy clay loam, clay loam or silty clay loam, and include hue of 5YR.
The E horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 through 6 and chroma of 3 through 8. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam or loam in the fine earth fraction.
The BE or BA horizon, where present, has hue of 2.5YR through 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 through 8 . It is sandy clay loam, clay loam, or clay in the fine earth fraction.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 4 through 8 with value of 3 limited to individual subhorizons. Some pedons have subhorizons with hue of 5YR. Some pedons have reticulate mottling in the lower part of the Bt. It is clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay loam, or clay in the fine earth fraction.
The BC horizon, where present, has hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 6 or 8. Some pedons have hue of 5YR. Some pedons are mottled or streaked in shades of red, yellow, and brown. This horizon is generally coarser in texture than the Bt and commonly contains a higher content of rock fragments. It is sandy clay loam, clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay loam, or clay.
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10R through 7.5YR, value of 3 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 8. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or sandy clay in the fine earth fraction.
The 2C horizon, where present, has hue of 10R through 7.5YR, value of 3 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 8. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or sandy clay in the fine earth fraction.
COMPETING SERIES: These are the
Trappist series and the
Bentley (T) and
Clover (T) series. Christian soils formed in residuum of interbedded limestone, sandstone, siltstone, and shales. Trappist soils have shale bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. The tentative Bentley series has a substratum of stratified alluvium. The tentative Clover series formed from residuum from Triassic sedimentary rocks. Additionally, series that were formerly in the same family, but have not been updated to 7th or 8th edition standards include
Woolwine series. Boden soils formed in sandstone and shale residuum contain rock fragments of sandstone. Buckhall and Clifton soils formed in residuum of granite, gneiss, and schist. Buffstat, Gassville, Littlejoe, Nantahala (T) and Warminster soils have soft bedrock at 40 to 60 inches. Fairfax soils formed in silty fluvial sediments over residuum. Goresville (T) soils formed in alluvium. Groseclose, Muse, and Unison soils have hue of 5YR or yellower throughout the Bt horizon. Howell and Quantico Quantico soils formed in marine and fluvial sediments on the coastal plain. Lodi soils formed in residuum of limestone with interbedded sandstone and some shales. Sequoia and Woolwine soils formed from residuum and have soft bedrock at 20 to 40 inches. Timberville soils formed from alluvium and colluvium primarily from sedimentary rocks, have a lithologic discontinuity in the control section and are subject to flooding.
Series that were formerly in the same family but have been reclassified include
Pervina. Agnos soils are in a very fine family and formed from residuum weathered from cherty dolomite. Monmouth soils are in an active family and formed in unconsolidated coastal plain sediments. Pervina soils are in an active family and receive 60 to 70 inches of precipitation each year.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Braddock soils are on footslopes of ridges and on colluvial fans in Virginia. They are on footslopes of ridges and colluvial fans, and high stream terraces in other areas. Slopes range from 0 to 45 percent. The soils developed in colluvium and alluvium derived dominantly from a mixture of crystalline rocks. The mean annual temperature ranges from about 52 degrees to 59 degrees F. Mean annual precipitation ranges from about 36 to 44 inches.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: In addition to the competing
Unison soils, these include the
Zoar series. Brandywine soils have a cambic horizon and a sandy- skeletal particle size control section. Brevard, Edgemont, Eubanks, and Thurmont soils have a fine-loamy particle size control section. Culpeper and Hayesville soils have kaolinitic mineralogy and occur on upland landscape positions. Drayke soils have dark red colors throughout the Bt horizon. Monongahela and Trego soils have a fragipan. Shottower soils have clay content that does not decrease significantly with depth. Zoar soils are moderately well drained.
DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow to moderately slow permeability in the subsoil and moderate to moderately rapid in the substratum. Runoff class is low to moderate on nearly level slopes to very high on steep slopes.
USE AND VEGETATION: Most of these soils are forested. Some of the acreage is used for growing cultivated crops and pasture. Crops include corn, small grain, hay, apple and peach orchards, berries, and vegetables. Natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods, dominated by oaks and dogwood, with some hickory, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Tennessee. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Frederick County, Maryland, 1945.
REMARKS: Braddock soils recognized in the past in Virginia as forming in alluvium on high stream terraces are now correlated to the Shottower series.
The 6/98 revision placed Braddock soils in the active CEC activity class.
The 2/99 revision changes the CEC activity class to semiactive based on the SIR and similar soils such as Tate.
Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
1. Ochric epipedon-the zone from the surface to 9 inches (Ap horizon).
2. Argillic horizon-zone from 9 to 48 inches (Bt horizon).
SIR = VA0054, VA0097 (STONY), VA0231 (GRAVELLY), VA0232 (COBBLY)
MLRA = 128, 130, 147
REVISED = 12/17/92-MHC; 6/98-MHC; 2/99-DHK
National Cooperative Soil Survey