LOCATION CINCINNATI              OH+IN KY

Established Series
Rev. BGN-GRS-SJH
12/2010

CINCINNATI SERIES


The Cincinnati series consists of very deep, well drained soils that are moderately deep to a fragipan. These soils formed in a mantle of loess, a thin layer of pedisediment, and a paleosol formed in the underlying till. They are on till plains. Slope ranges from 1 to 18 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 1016 mm (40 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 12 degrees C (54 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Fragiudalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Cincinnati silt loam, on a 3 percent slope in an idle field, formerly cultivated, at an elevation of 338 meters (1110 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 inches); brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; moderate fine and medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. [15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 inches) thick]

Bt1--25 to 41 cm (10 to 16 inches); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; few faint dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; common faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay depletions on faces of peds; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

Bt2--41 to 56 cm (16 to 22 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; common distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese stains on faces of peds; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 36 to 66 cm (14 to 26 inches).]

2Bt3--56 to 71 cm (22 to 28 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) silty clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; common distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese stains on faces of peds; 3 percent glacial pebbles; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 25 cm (10 inches) thick]

3Bt4--71 to 89 cm (28 to 35 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; many distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese stains on faces of peds; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese concretions throughout; 3 percent glacial pebbles; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 25 cm (10 inches) thick]

3Btx1--89 to 114 cm (35 to 45 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky; very firm; few fine roots along faces of prisms; many distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on vertical faces of peds; common faint brown (10YR 5/3) clay films on horizontal faces of peds; common medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions in the matrix; many faint light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) clay depletions on faces of prisms; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese stains on faces of peds; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese concretions throughout; 5 percent glacial pebbles; brittle; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

3Btx2--114 to 132 cm (45 to 52 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay loam; moderate very coarse prismatic structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky; very firm; common distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on vertical faces of peds; few faint brown (10YR 5/3) clay films on horizontal faces of peds; few medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions in the matrix; common faint light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) clay depletions on faces of prisms; many medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese stains on faces of peds; few fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese concretions throughout; 5 percent glacial pebbles; brittle; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the 3Btx horizon is 25 to 91 cm (10 to 36 inches).]

3B't--132 to 147 cm (52 to 58 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay loam; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to weak coarse subangular blocky; firm; common faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay films on faces of peds; few medium prominent gray (10YR 6/1) iron depletions in the matrix; few distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) clay depletions on faces of prisms; common fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese stains on faces of peds; common fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese concretions throughout; 10 percent glacial pebbles; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. [0 to 38 cm (15 inches) thick]

3BC--147 to 229 cm (58 to 90 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay loam; weak thin platy structure in the upper part grading to massive; firm; few gray (10YR 5/1) clay films in tubular pores in the upper part; common medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) iron depletions in the matrix; common fine very dark brown (10YR 2/2) iron and manganese concretions throughout; 10 percent glacial pebbles; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [25 to 102 cm (10 to 40 inches) thick]

3C--229 to 292 cm (90 to 115 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; massive; firm; few medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) masses of iron accumulation in the matrix; 12 percent glacial pebbles; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Highland County, Ohio; 4 1/2 miles south-southwest of Hillsboro, in New Market Township; about 3.2 miles south along St. Rt. 62 to the intersection of Warlamount Rd., then about 1,865 feet west along Warlamount Rd. to the intersection of Swisshelm Rd., then about 1,580 feet north along Swisshelm Rd., then 162 feet east; USGS New Market, Ohio topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 09 minutes 12 seconds N. and long. 83 degrees 40 minutes 09 seconds W., NAD 27.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Thickness of the solum: 122 to 305 cm (48 to 120 inches)
Depth to carbonates: 122 to 305 cm (48 to 120 inches)
Thickness of the silty mantle: 46 to 102 cm (18 to 40 inches)
Depth to the fragipan: 56 to 91 cm (22 to 36 inches)
Rock fragments: dominantly glacial pebbles of igneous and metamorphic lithology; some part of the argillic horizon above a depth of 152 cm (60 inches) averages 4 to 14 percent rock fragments
Particle-size control section: averages from 25 to 35 percent clay

Ap horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5 (6 or 7 dry)
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: silt loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 2 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid to neutral

Some undisturbed pedons have a thin A horizon and an E horizon.

Bt horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 4 to 8; high chroma redox concentrations in the lower part in some pedons
Texture: silt loam or silty clay loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 2 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid

Btx horizon, where present:
Texture: silt loam or silty clay loam
Rock fragment content: 0 to 2 percent

2Bt or 2Btx horizon (in the pedisediment material)
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: silt loam or silty clay loam
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid in the upper part ranging to moderately acid in the lower part

3Bt or 3Btx horizon (in the till)
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: commonly loam, clay loam, or silt loam, and less commonly silty clay loam
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid in the upper part ranging to moderately acid in the lower part

3B't or 3BC horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 3 to 8
Texture: commonly loam, silty clay loam, or clay loam, or less commonly includes thin subhorizons of clay or silty clay
Clay content: 22 and 35 percent
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid to moderately acid in the upper part and slightly acid in the lower part

3C horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 3 to 6
Texture: loam or clay loam
Rock fragment content: 2 to 14 percent
Reaction: slightly acid to moderately alkaline

In some pedons, the 3C horizon is in the lower part of the series control section.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Apalona, Ava, Bedford, Fountainville, Grantsburg, Hildebrecht, Hosmer, Lawrenceville, Nicholson, Omulga, Otwell, Otwood, Solsberry, Weisburg, and Zanesville series. Apalona, Bedford, and Weisburg soils average more than 35 percent clay in horizons immediately below the fragipan. Ava soils do not have a subhorizon within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches) that has more than 4 percent rock fragments. Fountainville soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches). Grantsburg and Hosmer soils do not have rock fragments in the solum. Hildebrecht soils have more than 14 percent rock fragments within the fragipan. Lawrenceville and Zanesville soils have rock fragments and/or pararock fragments dominated by shale, siltstone, sandstone or limestone. Nicholson soils do not have glacial pebbles within the series control section. Omulga and Otwell soils are stratified with various textures in the lower part of the series control section. Solsberry soils have more than 14 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Cincinnati soils are on till plains of Illinoian age. Slope ranges from 1 to 18 percent. The soils formed in a mantle of loess 46 to 102 cm (18 to 40 inches) thick, a thin layer of pedisediment, and a paleosol formed in the underlying till. Climate is humid and temperate. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 889 to 1143 mm (35 to 45 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges from 11 to 14 degrees C (52 to 57 degrees F). Frost-free period is 160 to 200 days. Elevation is 183 to 396 meters (600 to 1,300 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are commonly the Avonburg, Blanchester, Blocher, Clermont, Cobbsfork, Jonesboro, Nabb, Rossmoyne, Schaffer, and Westboro soils; all are less sloping members of a toposequence with Cincinnati soils; and also the Bonnell, Eden, Edenton, Fairmount, Jessup, and Loudon soils. Avonburg, Schaffer, and Westboro soils are somewhat poorly drained; Blanchester, Clermont and Cobbsfork soils are poorly drained; and Blocher, Jonesboro, Nabb, and Rossmoyne soils are moderately well drained. Blocher soils are on similar positions on the landform and are often part of a complex map unit that includes the Cincinnati soils. Bonnell soils are on dissected parts of the till plain and do not have a fragipan. Edenton, Jessup, and Loudon soils are on dissected parts of the till plain. The moderately deep Eden and shallow Fairmount soils are more clayey, and are on backslopes of hills underlain with interbedded shale and limestone.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. The depth to the top of an intermittent perched high water table ranges from 61 to 91 cm (2 to 3 feet) between December and April in normal years. The potential for surface runoff is low to high depending on slope. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high above the fragipan and moderately low in and below the fragipan. Permeability is moderate above the fragipan and moderately slow or slow in and below the fragipan.

USE AND VEGETATION: Much of the area of Cincinnati soils is used for growing cultivated crops, mainly corn, wheat, soybeans, tobacco, and forages, both grasses and legumes. A considerable percentage of the Cincinnati soils is used for pasture or woodland, or is idle. Native vegetation is deciduous mixed hardwoods, including oaks, hickory, tulip poplar, maple, and beech.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southwestern Ohio, southern Indiana, and northern Kentucky; dominantly in MLRAs 114A and 114B, with included areas in MLRAs 111D, 115A, and 121. The series is of large extent, nearly one-half million acres.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Ohio, 1912.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 25 cm (Ap horizon).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 25 to 147 cm (Bt, 2Bt, 3Bt, 3Btx, 3B't horizons).
Fragipan: from a depth of 89 to 132 cm (3Btx1, 3Btx2)
Aquic conditions: redox features present in horizons between depths of 89 to 229 cm.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data are available for HY-63, the typical pedon, and for HY-69 which is near the typical pedon site. Supporting data is also available for BN-58, CL-8, WA-8, and WA-S11 from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Data is also available at the MO 11 in Indianapolis for several pedons from Indiana.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.