LOCATION BONNELL                 IN+OH

Established Series
Rev. GRS-BGN
02/2011

BONNELL SERIES


The Bonnell series consists of very deep, well drained soils that formed in less than 46 cm (18 inches) of loess or loamy materials and the underlying till. These soils are on dissected till plains. Slope ranges from 6 to 60 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 1067 mm (42 inches), and mean annual temperature is about 12 degrees C (54 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Bonnell silt loam, on an east-facing, convex, 25 percent slope in a forested area at an elevation of about 253 meters (830 feet) above MSL. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

A--0 to 8 cm (3 inches); very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; moderate fine granular structure; friable; many coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. [5 to 13 cm (2 to 5 inches) thick]

EB--8 to 15 cm (3 to 6 inches); dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many fine and coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 10 cm (4 inches) thick]

Bt1--15 to 23 cm (6 to 9 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; few faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 23 cm (9 inches) thick]

2Bt2--23 to 66 cm (9 to 26 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay; moderate medium angular blocky structure; firm; common fine and medium roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

2Bt3--66 to 91 cm (26 to 36 inches); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay; moderate medium subangular and angular blocky structure; firm; common fine and medium roots; many distinct brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions throughout; 4 percent gravel; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

2Bt4--91 to 112 cm (36 to 44 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; many distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions throughout; 3 percent gravel; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

2Bt5--112 to 152 cm (44 to 60 inches); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; common distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions throughout; 3 percent gravel; strongly acid in the upper part and slightly acid in the lower part; gradual wavy boundary. [Combined thickness of the 2Bt horizon is 91 to 140 cm (36 to 55 inches).]

2BCt--152 to 178 cm (60 to 70 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; few distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; common fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) iron-manganese concretions throughout; 5 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. [20 to 30 cm (8 to 12 inches) thick]

2C--178 to 203 cm (70 to 80 inches); brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam; massive; firm; 5 percent gravel; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Ohio County, Indiana; 1/2 mile north of Bear Branch; 700 feet north and 2,000 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 14, T. 4 N., R 3 W.; USGS Bear Branch, Ind. topographic quadrangle; lat. 38 degrees 55 minutes 08.135 seconds N. and long. 085 degrees 04 minutes 21.985 seconds W.; UTM Zone 16, 667078.085 easting and 4309545.637 northing, NAD 83

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Thickness of the loess: less than 46 cm (18 inches)
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 102 to 165 cm (40 to 65 inches)
Particle-size control section: averages 35 to 45 percent clay and 18 to 30 percent sand

A horizon, where present:
Thickness: 5 to 13 cm (2 to 5 inches thick)
Hue: 10YR
Value: 2 to 4
Chroma: 1 or 2
Texture: silt loam or loam
Clay content: 10 to 24 percent
Sand content: 5 to 35
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid

Ap horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: silt loam or loam and ranges to clay loam or silty clay loam (severely eroded pedons)
Clay content: 10 to 34 percent
Sand content: 5 to 35
Reaction: very strongly acid to neutral

EB or BE horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: silt loam or loam
Clay content: 10 to 22 percent
Sand content: 12 to 32 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid

Bt horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 5
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: loam, silt loam or silty clay loam
Clay content: 20 to 32 percent
Sand content: 12 to 32 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid

2Bt horizon:
Hue: 10YR or 7.5YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 3 to 8
Texture: is clay loam or clay
Clay content: 35 to 48 percent
Sand content: 20 to 35 percent
Rock fragments content: 3 to 5 percent gravel, and includes cobbles
Reaction: very strongly acid or strongly acid in the upper part and moderately acid to slightly alkaline in the lower part

2BCt horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 5
Chroma: 3 to 6
Texture: clay loam or loam
Clay content: 24 to 34 percent
Sand content: 20 to 45 percent
Rock fragment content: 3 to 8 percent gravel, and includes cobbles
Reaction: commonly slightly alkaline or neutral, and less commonly is slightly acid or moderately alkaline

2C horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 5 or 6
Chroma: 3 to 6
Texture: loam or clay loam
Clay content: 18 to 34 percent
Sand content: 25 to 50 percent
Rock fragment content: 3 to 8 percent gravel, and includes cobbles
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Beasley, Bledsoe, Brashear, Bratton, Bucklick, Caneyville, Cosperville, Donahue, Eden, Elba, Enott, Estate, Faywood, Fredonia, Haggatt, Heitt, Heverlo, Jessup, Kewaunee, Lowell, Markland, Milton, Mountpleasant, Muncie, Shrouts, and Vandalia soils. Beasley, Eden, Enott, Heverlo, and Shrouts soils have a paralithic contact within the series control section. Bledsoe and Vandalia soils have more than 5 percent rock fragments in the particle-size control section. Brashear, Elba, and Jessup soils do not have rock fragments within the series control section of igneous lithology. Bratton, Bucklick, Caneyville, Donahue, Faywood, Fredonia, Haggatt, and Milton soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches). Cosperville and Muncie soils are less acid than strongly acid in the upper part of the argillic horizon. Estate soils have an argillic horizon with hues redder than 7.5YR. Heitt and Kewaunee soils are less than 102 cm (40 inches) to the base of the argillic horizon. Lowell and Markland soils average less than 18 percent sand in the particle-size control section. Mountpleasant soils have more than 8 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the solum.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Bonnell soils are typically on shoulders and back slopes of dissected till plains, considered to be of the Illinoian stage. They formed in less than 46 cm (18 inches) of loess or loamy material from valley side alluvium, and the underlying till. Slope ranges from 6 to 60 percent. Mean annual temperature ranges from 11 to 14 degrees C (51 to 57 degrees F). Mean annual precipitation ranges from 1016 to 1143 mm (40 to 45 inches). Frost free period is 150 to 200 days. Elevation is 122 to 259 meters (400 to 850 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are commonly the Avonburg, Blocher, Cincinnati, Hickory and Nabb soils, and less commonly the Carmel and Eden soils. The somewhat poorly drained Avonburg soils are typically on nearly level summits. The moderately well drained Blocher soils are typically on shoulders and backslopes. The well drained Carmel, Eden and Hickory soils are on backslopes. The Carmel and Eden soils formed in residuum weathered from interbedded limestone and shale. The moderately well drained Cincinnati and Nabb soils are typically summits and shoulders, and have less clay in the upper part of the argillic horizon.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. The potential for surface water runoff ranges from medium to very high. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the lower part of the subsoil and moderately low or moderately high in the substratum. Permeability is moderately slow in the lower part of the subsoil and moderately slow or slow in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of Bonnell soils are used for hay, pasture or woodland. A few areas are being used for growing small grain, corn or soybeans. Native vegetation is mixed hardwood forest.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Dominantly in MLRA 114A in south-central and south-eastern Indiana, and to a lesser extent in MLRA 121 in south-eastern Indiana and south-western Ohio. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Ohio County, Indiana, 1979.

REMARKS: Representative component and horizon data is in DMU# 124517. A severely eroded phase (rep. component and horizon data in DMU# 124482) and a gullied phase are recognized.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth 15 cm (6 inches) (A, EB).
Argillic horizon: from 15 to 152 cm (6 to 60 inches) (Bt1, 2Bt2, 2Bt3, 2Bt4, 2Bt5).

ADDITIONAL DATA: Lab data: Agricultural Experiment Station, Purdue University, Station Bulletin No. 174, File No. BA7003; Station Bulletin No. 175, File No. OH7401 (type location); Station Bulletin No. 412, File No. JN8010; Station Bulletin No. 451, File No. FR8106; and Station Bulletin No. 494, File No.
BR8107, National Soil Survey Lab, Lincoln, NE. data available: S86IN143-4.



National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.