Established Series


The Freehold series are very deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils formed in marine sediments containing glauconite. These soils are on uplands in the coastal plains and have slopes ranging from 0 to 40 percent. Mean annual precipitation is 46 inches and mean annual temperature is 52 degrees F.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults

TYPICAL PEDON: Freehold sandy loam-cultivated (Colors are for moist soils.)

Ap--0 to 9 inches, Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam; very weak subangular blocky structure, parting to weak fine granular structure; friable; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (8 to 12 inches thick)

BA--9 to 12 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; some dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) materials from A horizon; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. ( 0 to 8 inches thick)

Bt1--12 to 18 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine granular structure; friable, firm, in place, slightly plastic; clay films on faces of peds redder than centers of peds; few glauconite few faint grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick)

Bt2--18 to 25 inches, dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy clay loam, greener and redder variegations associated with pockets highter in glauconite grains; weak coarse subangular blocky structure parting to fine or medium subangular blocky structure; friable, firm in place, slightly plastic; common distinct clay bridging between sand grains; common glauconite grains; strongly adid; diffuse wavy boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick)

BC--25 to 35 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) sandy loam; massive; friable; common fine to medium sandsize grains of glauconite; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (3 to 14 inches thick)

C--35 to 70 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) loamy sand; single grain; loose; many dark glauconite grains; very strongly acid.

TYPE LOCATION: Monmouth County, New Jersey; 1/4 mile northwest of West Freehold along road to Wemrock, 200 feet west of road and 200 feet south of farm lane.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 45 inches. Rounded quartzose pebbles are typically absent but range to 5 percent. The A, B and upper part of the C horizons have 1 to 10 percent glauconite except some pedons have an uncomforming sandy loam or loamy sand mantle, up to 20 inches thick, which is deficient in glauconite. The soil ranges from strongly to extremely acid.

The Ap horizon has a hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, chroma of 2 through 4. It ranges from loamy sand to loam. In uncultivated areas there is either a micro-podsol up to four inches thick, or an A1 horizon 1 to 6 inches thick and an A2 or A3 horizon 3 to 12 inches thick. The A1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4 anc chromas of 2 or 3. The A2 or A3 horizon is absent under many plowed layers but has hue of 7.5YR through 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, chroma of 4 or 5. The A horizons have weak or moderate granular, subangular blocky or, in the lower part, platy structure.

The B horizon has hues of 7.5YR or 10YR, values of 4 through 6 and chromas of 4 through 8. It is sandy clay loam, loam or sandy loam and has a weighted average clay content of 18 to 25 percent. It has weak or moderate fine or medium subangular blocky structure.

The C horizon has hues of 5YR through 2.5Y. It is stratified loamy sand or sand with thin strata of sandy loam. Successive strata have ranges in glauconite content from traces to 20 percent; and differing degrees of iron cementation ranging from weakly cemented layers, up to 12 inches thick, to indurated sheets, up to 1 inche thick.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Albermarle, Allegheny, Allenwood, Arendstville, Aura, Bedington, Birdsboro, Brevard, Bucks, Butano, Chester, Chilmark, Clymer, Collington, Colts Neck, Coolfont, Edgement, Edneyville, Elsinboro, Eubanks, Fairfax, Frankstown, Filpin, Glenelg, Leck Kill, Manassas, Meadowville, Murrill, Nixon, Quakertown, Rayne, Shelocta, Shouns, Tate, Thurmont, Ungers and Whiteford soils in the same family. All of the series in the same family except Collington and Colts Neck soils either lack glauconite or only contain isolated grains. Collington soils have more than 10 percent glauconite. Colts Neck soils have hues of 5YR or redder in the B horizon.

The Holmdel, Matapeake and Sassafras series are similar soils in related families. Holmdel soils are mottled within 24 inches of the top of the argillic horizon. Matapeake and Sassafras soils either lack glauconite or only have isolated grains.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Freehold soils are gently to steeply sloping soils on uplands. They formed in sandy marine coastal plain sediments which have small to moderate amounts of glauconite except a mantle up to 20 inches thick may lack glauconite. The mean annual temperature ranges from 45 to 55 degrees F., and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 48 inches, distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Collington, Colts Neck, Holmdel, and Sassafras soils and the Adelphia, Pemberton and Tinton soils. Adelphia soils are moderatey well to somewhat poorly drained. Pemberton and Tinton soils have sand or loamy sand surface horizons more than 20 inches thick.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Freehold soils are well drained. Runoff is slow to rapid, depending on slope. Permeability is moderate.

USE AND VEGETATION: Except for steep areas, these soils are generally cleared and used for growing vegetables, fruits and specialty crops. Woodland species include black, white, scarlet and northern red oaks, yellow-poplar, hickory and beech.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The inner coastal plain of New Jersey and probably Maryland. Moderate extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Burlington and Camden Counties, New Jersey. 1936.

National Cooperative Soil Survey