LOCATION BIRDSBORO PA+MD NJ VAEstablished Series
TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludults
TYPICAL PEDON: Birdsboro silt loam, on 3 to 8 percent southwest-facing slopes in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise noted.)
Ap--0 to 10 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; moderate fine granular structure; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; 2 percent rounded gravel; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 11 inches thick)
Bt1--10 to 19 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) silty clay loam; moderate fine blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; common faint clay films on faces of peds; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. (4 to 11 inches thick)
Bt2--19 to 28 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) loam; moderate medium and fine blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; many faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 5 percent rounded gravel; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. (5 to 25 inches thick)
Bt3--28 to 39 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) loam; moderate coarse blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, plastic; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron concentration and pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron depletion; many faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores; 2 percent rounded gravel; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 15 inches thick)
Bt4--39 to 46 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy clay loam; moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron concentration and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletion; few faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 9 inches thick)
C--46 to 70 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/4) very gravelly clay loam; massive; friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) iron concentration and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletion; 50 percent rounded gravel; very strongly acid.
TYPE LOCATION: Bedford County, Pennsylvania; St. Clair Township, 1 mile west of St. Clairsville and 200 feet southeast of the intersection of LR05060 and T540.
RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Depth to gravelly layers is more than 40 inches. Depth to bedrock is 6 to 20 feet or more. Gravel content ranges from 0 to 20 percent in the solum and from 0 to 70 percent in the C horizon. Reaction throughout the soil ranges from extremely acid through strongly acid, unless limed.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 2.5YR through 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 2 through 4. Dry value is more than 5. Texture is silt loam or loam in the fine-earth fraction.
The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR through 7.5YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. Hue of 7.5YR is restricted to the lower part of the solum. Fine-earth textures are loam, silt loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, and silty clay loam. Structure is weak or moderate, fine through coarse blocky or subangular blocky. Some pedons have a BC horizon up to 12 inches thick.
The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR through 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. Fine-earth textures are sand,loamy sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, and clay loam. Some pedons have stratified layers of gravel.
COMPETING SERIES: Chilmark, Hassler, Roselle, Thurmont, Tulip , soils are in the same family.. Chilmark soils formed in a loamy or sandy aeolian mantle over fine or moderately fine coastal plain sediments. Hassler soils formed in loamy colluvium and residuum weathered from acid igneous rocks, primarily granite. Roselle soils formed in colluvium and alluvium derived from coarse grained, acid igneous rocks, primarily granite. Thurmont soils formed in alluvial and colluvial materials on footslopes, colluvial fans, benches, and stream terraces. Tulip soils formed in colluvium from sandstone and siltstone and the underlying paleosol in residuum from shale.
Albemarle, Allegheny, Allenwood, Arcola, Arendtsville, Aura, Bedington, Bucks, Butano, Chester, Chetwynd, Chili, Clymer, Collington, Cowee, Hackers, Edgemont, Edneytown, Elsinboro, Eubanks, Frankstown, Freehold, Gilpin, Glenelg, Leck Kill, Matapeake, Meadowville, Murrill, Nixon, Pineville, Quakertown, Rawson, Rayne, Shelocta, Shouns, Syenite, Tate, Ungers, and Whiteford soils are in other related families or subgroups. Albemarle soils have rock fragments dominated by quartz, quartzite or weathered arkose sandstone. Allegheny, Clymer, Edgemont, Frankstown, Meadowville, Quakertown, Rayne and Shelocta soils have hue of 7.5YR or yellower throughout the B horizon. Allenwood soils formed in glacial till and rock fragments are subrounded. Arcola soils formed in materials that weathered from Triassic and Jurassic interbedded siltstone, fine grained sandstone, and conglomerate in the Culpeper Basin of the northern part of the Piedmont Plateau. Arendtsville soils formed in materials weathered from a fanglomerate of quartzite, sandstone, aporhyolite, and other rocks held together in a red sandy matrix. Aura, Chetwynd, Murrill and Shouns soils have sola thicker than 48 inches. Bedington soils have channery rock fragments of gray or olive shale. Bucks and Leck Kill soils formed in residuum from red shale and have channery rock fragments. Butano, Gilpin and Syenite soils have bedrock at depths less than 40 inches. Chester and Elsinboro soils contain mica, particularly in the lower part of the solum and C horizon. Chili, Hackers and Rawson have more than 35 percent base saturation, Cowee soils have fragments of granite,gneiss or schist. Collington and Freehold soils have moderate quantities of glauconite. Edneytown soils formed in residuum that is affected by soil creep in the upper part, and weathered from felsic to mafic, igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. Eubanks soils have rock fragments of angular quartz and weathered granodiorite. Glenelg soils have sola less than 30 inches thick. Matapeake soils have a silt mantle over unconsolidated sandy coastal plain materials. Nixon soils have rock fragments dominated by quartzite cobbles. Pineville soils formed in colluvium derived from sandstone, shale, and siltstone. Tate soils formed in colluvium weathered from felsic to mafic high-grade metamorphic rocks. Ungers soils have channery rock fragments of quartzite, sandstone and shale. Whiteford soils have channery rock fragments of slate.
GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Birdsboro soils are on nearly level to sloping stream terraces and alluvial fans. Slopes range from 0 to 15 percent. They formed in old alluvial deposits derived from red sandstone, shale and siltstone. Climate is humid and temperate; mean annual precipitation ranges from 38 to 46 inches; average annual temperature ranges from 47 to 59 degrees F.; the growing season ranges from 140 to 200 days.
GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Barbour, Basher, Bermudian, Bowmansville, Lamington, Monongahela, Raritan and Rowland soils are on nearby landscapes. Barbour, Basher, Bermudian and Bowmansville soils do not have argillic horizons. Raritan, Lamington and Monongahela soils have fragipans.
DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained and moderately well drained. Runoff is slow to rapid. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high to high.
USE AND VEGETATION: Approximately 65 percent of the Birdsboro soils are cultivated or in pasture, 10 percent is wooded, mostly mixed hardwoods, and 25 percent is in non-agricultural uses.
DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia. The series is of moderate extent.
MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia
SERIES ESTABLISHED: Berks County, Pennsylvania, 1909.
REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
a. Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface of the soil to a depth of 10 inches (Ap horizon).
b. Argillic horizon - the zone from 10 to 39 inches (Bt horizon).
ADDITIONAL DATA: Series recognized as being very deep and depth to bedrock changed in the Characteristics Section to range from 6 to 20 feet or more.
Classification only was changed in 11/94, competing series and other changes will be made later.
2008: Pedon Description and type location updated. Previously Rev. EJM-EAW 06/2001.