Established Series


The Kenansville series consists of well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soils on Coastal Plain uplands and stream terraces. They have formed in marine and fluvial sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 10 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Arenic Hapludults

TYPICAL PEDON: Kenansville loamy sand - in a cultivated field on a 2 percent slope. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 8 inches, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; common fine roots; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick)

E--8 to 24 inches, light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. (14 to 30 inches thick)

Bt--24 to 36 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; common fine roots and pores; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (6 to 35 inches thick)

BC--36 to 42 inches, yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; few fine roots and pores; clay coatings on sand grains; few bridging of sand grains by clay; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (4 to 22 inches thick)

C--42 to 84 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; few fine distinct strong brown and common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) iron depletions; single grained; loose; strongly acid.

TYPE LOCATION: Lenoir County, North Carolina; 11 miles northeast of Kinston and 1.2 miles northwest of Grifton; 100 feet northeast of intersection of North Carolina Highway 11 and State Road 1704; in a cultivated field.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 60 inches. The soil ranges from very strongly through moderately acid in all horizons, unless limed.

The A or Ap horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. The A horizon is less than 6 inches thick if its color value, moist, is less than 3.5. Texture is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sand, or fine sand.

The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 8. Texture is similar to the A or Ap horizon.

The BE horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is loamy sandy, loamy fine sand or sandy loam.

The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is sandy loam or fine sandy loam. Thin layers of sandy clay loam are present in some pedons.

The BC, or B/C horizon, where present, has similar matrix color as the Bt horizon. Texture is sand, loamy sand, sandy loam or fine sandy loam.

The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR to 2.5Y, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8. Texture is sand or loamy sand.

COMPETING SERIES: (This section not checked this date; added activity class) The Baymeade, Blaney, Chipola, Chisolm, Coosaw, Garcon, Gomery, Remlik, Tenaha, Tomahawk, Uchee, and Valhalla series are in the same family. Alaga, Bassfield, Conetoe, Eustis, Galestown, Kamia, Latonia, Maxton, Molena, Pocalla, Rumford, Valhalla, Wagram, and Wakulla series are in closely related family. Baymead soils have A and B horizons with irregular intermittent Bh bodies. Blaney soils have a Bt horizon that is compact and brittle in part of the mass. Chipola and Chisolm soils have Bt horizons with redder hues. Coosaw and Garcon soils have low chroma mottles in the lower Bt horizon. Also, Garcon have less clayey Bt horizons. Gomery and Tenaha soils are underlain by soft bedrock. Remlik soils have common lamellae in the C horizon and are commonly on 6 to 45 percent slopes. Tomahawk soils have Bh horizon in lower part of solum. Also, they are somewhat poorly drained. Uchee soils have a clayey lower Bt horizon with moderately slow permeability. Valhalla soils have buried E and Bt horizons. Alaga, Eustis, Galestown, Molena, and Wakulla soils have coarser textures. In addition, Galestown soils are mesic and Molena soils have mixed mineralogy. Bassfield and Lotonia soils lack the arenic surface layer. Conetoe soils have mixed mineralogy. Kalmia and Maxton soils thinner A horizon and finer textures Bt horizon. Pocalla soils are bisequal. Rumford soils have thinner A horizons and redder Bt horizons. Wagram soils have thicker sola.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Kenansville soils are on nearly level to gently sloping Coastal Plain uplands and stream terraces. They formed in Coastal Plain and stream terrace sediments. Kenansville soils generally are on the smoother parts of the landscape between the higher, sandier ridges and the lower wet areas. Slope gradients are commonly 0 to 4 percent with a full range up to 10 percent. Average annual precipitation is about 48 inches and mean annual temperature is about 63 degrees F. near the type location.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Eustis, Kalmia, Wagram, and Wakulla series and the Cahaba, Eunola, Foreston, Johns and Lakeland series. Cahaba, Eunola, and Foreston soils lack thick sandy epipedons. Johns soils have low chroma mottles indicative of wetness in the Bt horizon. Lakeland soils are sandy and do not have Bt horizons.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow runoff; moderately rapid permeability. A seasonal water table is below 4.0 feet for the wet substratum phase.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are cleared and used for crops. Tobacco, corn, cotton, peanuts, and soybeans are the principal crops. Forested areas are in mixed hardwoods and pine. Native trees include oaks, hickory, dogwoods, and longleaf and loblolly pine.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Coastal Plain of North Carolina, Delaware, South Carolina, and Virginia. The series is of moderate extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Duplin County, North Carolina; 1955.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 24 inches (the Ap and E horizons)

Arenic feature - the zone with sandy textures from the surface to 24 inches (the Ap and E horizons)

Argillic horizon - the zone from a depth of 24 to 42 inches (the Bt and BC horizons)

MLRA=133A, 153A, 153B



SOI-5  Soil Name   Slope  Airtemp FrFr/Seas Precip  Elevation

SOI-5 FloodL FloodH Watertable Kind Months Bedrock Hardness

SOI-5 Depth Texture 3-Inch No-10 Clay% -CEC-

SOI-5 Depth -pH- O.M. Salin Permeab Shnk-Swll

National Cooperative Soil Survey