LOCATION OCKLEY                  IN+IL MI OH WI

Established Series
Rev. BGN-MLW-TJE
09/2014

OCKLEY SERIES


The Ockley series consists of very deep, well drained soils that are deep or very deep to calcareous, stratified sandy and gravelly outwash. Ockley soils formed in as much as 51 cm (20 inches) of loess or silty material and in the underlying loamy outwash. They are commonly on stream terraces and outwash plains, and less commonly on kame moraines and eskers. Slope ranges from 0 to 30 percent. Mean annual precipitation is about 1016 mm (40 inches), and mean annual air temperature is about 11 degrees C (52 degrees F).

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Ockley silt loam, on a 1 percent slope in a cultivated field at an elevation of about 308 meters (1,010 feet) above mean sea level. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 inches); brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) dry; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and very fine roots; 2 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. [15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 inches) thick]

BA--25 to 38 cm (10 to 15 inches); dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and very fine roots; 2 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 15 cm (0 to 6 inches) thick]

Bt1--38 to 46 cm (15 to 18 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine and very fine roots; common faint brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 6 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. [0 to 25 cm (0 to 10 inches) thick]

2Bt2--46 to 76 cm (18 to 30 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine and very fine roots; many distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) clay films on faces of peds; 4 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.

2Bt3--76 to 94 cm (30 to 37 inches); brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common prominent dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) clay films on faces of peds; 8 percent rock fragments; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

2Bt4--94 to 124 cm (37 to 49 inches); dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) gravelly sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) clay bridging between sand grains; 26 percent rock fragments; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary. [Combined thickness of the 2Bt horizon is 71 to 122 cm (28 to 48 inches).]

3C--124 to 200 cm (49 to 79 inches); yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) stratified coarse sand and very gravelly coarse sand; single grain; loose; 50 percent rock fragments; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Rush County, Indiana; about 1 mile east of Raleigh; 195 feet north and 1,850 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 18, T. 15 N., R. 11 E.; USGS Falmouth, Indiana topographic quadrangle; lat. 39 degrees 44 minutes 40.4 seconds N. and long. 85 degrees 20 minutes 44.2 seconds W., NAD 27; UTM Zone 16, 641750 easting and 4400720 northing, NAD 83.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS:
Thickness of the loess or silty material: 0 to 51 cm (0 to 20 inches)
Depth to the base of the argillic horizon: 102 to 183 cm (40 to 72 inches)
Depth to calcareous, stratified gravelly and sandy material: 102 to 183 cm (40 to 72 inches)
Rock fragments: dominantly of igneous lithology

Ap, A, or BA horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 3 to 5
Chroma: 2 to 4
Texture: silt loam or loam, or less commonly sandy loam, silty clay loam, or clay loam
Rock fragment content: averages 0 to 10 percent
Reaction: moderately acid to neutral

Bt or BE horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam
Clay content: 22 to 34 percent
Sand content: 8 to 30 percent
Rock fragment content: 0 to 10 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid to slightly acid

2Bt horizon, upper part, or 2BE horizon:
Hue: 7.5YR or 10YR
Value: 4 or 5
Chroma: 4 to 6
Texture: loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam
Clay content: 22 to 34 percent
Sand content: 25 to 70 percent
Rock fragment content: 0 to 10 percent
Reaction: very strongly acid to slightly acid

2Bt horizon, lower part:
Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
Value: 3 or 4
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or coarse sandy loam or the gravelly or very gravelly analogs of these textures, or less commonly clay loam or gravelly clay loam
Clay content: 10 to 32 percent
Sand content: 45 to 70 percent
Rock fragment content: 10 to 45 percent
Reaction: strongly acid to neutral, but ranges to slightly alkaline in the lower part

2BC horizon, where present:
Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
Value: 3 or 4
Chroma: 2 to 6
Texture: sandy loam or coarse sandy loam or the gravelly or very gravelly analogs of these textures

3C horizon:
Hue: 10YR
Value: 4 to 6
Chroma: 3 or 4
Texture: stratified gravelly or very gravelly analogs of loamy coarse sand or coarse sand, and includes strata of loamy sand, coarse sand, sand, or extremely gravelly sand
Clay content: 2 to 5 percent
Rock fragment content: averages 30 to 70 percent
Reaction: slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Amanda, Belmont, Belmore, Caprell, Chili, Cliftycreek, Conestoga, Crouse, Gallman, Greybrook, Hickory, High Gap, Hollinger, Kanawha, Kidder, Kosciusko, LeRoy, Lumberton, Martinsville, Military, Mocksville, Pignut, Princeton, Relay, Richardville, Riddles, Senachwine, Skelton, Strawn, Wawaka, Wawasee, and Woodbine series. Amanda, Chili, Gallman, Kanawha, and Mocksville soils do not have rock fragments dominantly of igneous lithology. Belmont, High Gap, Lumberton, Military, and Woodbine soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 152 cm (60 inches). Belmore soils have more than 5 percent clay in the lower part of the series control section. Caprell soils have carbonates within a depth of 102 cm (40 inches). Cliftycreek soils have more than 32 percent clay in the lower part of the argillic horizon. Conestoga and Hickory soils have less than 45 percent sand in the lower part of the argillic horizon. Crouse, Greybrook, Martinsville, Skelton, and Wawaka soils have less than 10 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the argillic horizon. Hollinger, Kidder, Kosciusko, LeRoy, Relay, Senachwine, Strawn, and Wawasee soils are less than 102 cm (40 inches) to the base of the argillic horizon. Princeton soils do not have rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section. Richardville soils average less than 30 percent rock fragments in the lower part of the series control section. Riddles soils have lamellae in the lower part of the argillic horizon.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Ockley soils are commonly on stream terraces and outwash plains, and less commonly on kame moraines and eskers. Slope gradient commonly is 0 to 6 percent on stream terraces and outwash plains, and 2 to 30 percent on kame moraines and eskers. The soils formed in as much as 51 cm (20 inches) of loess or silty material and in the underlying loamy outwash. They are deep or very deep to calcareous, stratified sandy and gravelly outwash. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 762 to 1143 mm (30 to 45 inches). Mean annual air temperature ranges from 8 to 13 degrees C (47 to 55 degrees F). Frost-free period is 130 to 180 days. Elevation is 122 to 335 meters (400 to 1,100 feet) above mean sea level.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: They are commonly associated with Fox, Rush, Sleeth, and Westland soils on outwash plains and stream terraces. They are less commonly associated with Miami and Russell soils which are on adjacent till plains. The well drained Fox soils are moderately deep to stratified gravelly and sandy outwash and are typically on shoulders and backslopes. The moderately well drained Miami and well drained Russell soils are on summits, shoulders, and backslopes of dissected till plains. The well drained, more silty Rush soils are on similar landforms as the Ockley soils. The somewhat poorly drained Sleeth soils are on nearly level summits of outwash plains. The poorly drained and very poorly drained Westland soils are in depressions on outwash plains and stream terraces.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Well drained. Potential for surface runoff is negligible to high depending on slope. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high in the solum and very high in the underlying material. Permeability is moderate in the solum and very rapid in the underlying material.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas of these soils are used to grow corn, soybeans, wheat and hay. Native vegetation is dominantly mixed hardwood forest.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Central and southeastern Indiana, central and northern Illinois, southwestern Michigan, central and southern Ohio, and southern Wisconsin; dominantly in MLRA 111A, 111B, 111D, and 111E, and to a lesser extent in MLRAs 108A, 95B, 97, 98, and 114A. The type location is in MLRA 111A. The series is of large extent.

MLRA SOIL SURVEY REGIONAL OFFICE (MO) RESPONSIBLE: Indianapolis, Indiana.

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Carroll County, Indiana, 1955.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:
Ochric epipedon: from the surface to a depth of 38 cm (Ap, BA horizons).
Argillic horizon: from a depth of 38 to 124 cm (Bt, 2Bt horizons).

Till substratum, sandy substratum, and bedrock substratum phases are recognized. These will likely be proposed as new series when the subset surveys with these phases are updated.

ADDITIONAL DATA: Characterization data is available for the typical pedon, S1979IN139009, from the Kellogg Soil Survey Laboratory (KSSL), Lincoln, Nebraska. Data for pedons sampled by the Agricultural Experiment Station at Purdue University and at The Ohio State University are also available from KSSL.


National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.