Established Series
Rev. JMR


The Fredonia series consists of moderately deep, well drained upland soils formed in residuum from limestone. Permeability is moderately slow or slow. Slopes range from 2 to 30 percent. The mean annual temperature is about 57 degrees F., and mean annual precipitation is about 48 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Fredonia silt loam--on a smooth 10 percent slope under grass. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 6 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) silt loam; moderate fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. (3 to 9 inches thick)

Bt1--6 to 20 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) silty clay; moderate
fine and medium subangular blocky structure; very firm; common fine roots; many thin clay films; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (5 to 20 inches thick)

Bt2--20 to 32 inches; dark red (10R 3/6) clay; moderate fine and medium angular blocky structure; very firm; few fine roots; many clay films; few thin black films; few fine black concretions; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (5 to 20 inches thick)

R--32 inches; light gray massive limestone.

TYPE LOCATION: Logan County, Kentucky; on north side of U.S. Highway 68, 6 miles east of Russellville.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to bedrock ranges from 20 to 40 inches. Rock fragments of chert range from 0 to 5 percent. Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid in the A and Bt1 horizons, except where limed, and from strongly acid through neutral in the Bt2 horizons.

The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. Texture is silt loam or silty clay loam, and in some severely eroded areas, silty clay.

The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 10R, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 4 to 6. Texture is silty clay or clay. Some pedons have silty clay loam BA, Bt1 horizons with hue of 5YR or 7.5YR.

Some pedons have a C or CB horizon with colors and textures like the Bt horizons, and some are mottled in shades of brown, yellow, or gray.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Beasley, Bland, Bledsoe, Bonnell, Brashear, Bratton, Briggsville, Brookside, Brushcreek, Bucklick, Caneyville, Chrome, Derinda, Donahue, Eden, Edenton, Elba, Eldean, Estate, Faywood, Hagerstown, Heitt, Jessup, Kewaunee, Lamoille, Losantville, Lowell, Markland, Medary, Miamian, Milton, Newnata, Ozaukee, Shrouts, Upshur, Vandalia, Vincent, Winnegan, Woodsfield, and Wynn series. Only the Bland, Bratton, Caneyville, Chrome, Donahue, Edenton, Faywood, and Milton series have lithic contact at
a depth less than 40 inches. Bland soils have chromas of 2 or 3 in the Bt2 horizon. Bratton soils have a lithologic discontinuity at
10 to 20 inches, and skeletans in the BA or B&A horizon. Caneyville, Donahue, Edenton, Faywood, and Milton soils have B horizons with hues yellower than 2.5YR. Chrome soils have solum thickness of less than 20 inches, an exchange complex dominated by magnesium, and have formed in residuum from serpentine rock.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Rolling uplands with slopes of 2 to 30 percent. Fredonia soils have formed in the residuum from massive gray limestone. Most areas have rock outcrops, and some areas have karst topography. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 49 inches, and the mean annual temperature ranges from 53 to 57 degrees F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Crider, Nicholson, and Pembroke series. Crider and Pembroke soils have less than 35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon, and sola more than 60 inches thick. Nicholson soils have fragipans.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Medium or rapid runoff. Permeability is moderately slow to slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are used for hay or pasture, some are used for growing corn and small grains, and some are wooded. Native forests have redcedar, oaks, hickory, elm, ash, walnut, and redbud as common species.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Pennyroyal region of Kentucky. The series is of moderate extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Caldwell County, Kentucky; 1964.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features in the pedon are:

Ochric epipedon, 0 to 6 inches, Ap
Argillic horizon, 6 to 32 inches, Bt1, Bt2
Lithic contact at 32 inches.

National Cooperative Soil Survey