Established Series


The Hilton series consists of very deep, moderately well drained soils formed in till of Wisconsin age, derived from sandstone and limestone. They are nearly level to sloping soils on till plains and glaciated dissected plateaus. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the mineral solum and moderately high to low in the substratum. Slope ranges from 0 to 15 percent. Mean annual temperature is 47 degrees F. and mean annual precipitation is 39 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Oxyaquic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Hilton loam - in a cultivated field having a slope of 4 percent (Colors refer to moist broken soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap-- 0 to 9 inches, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick.)

E-- 9 to 17 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) loam; weak fine and medium platy structure; friable; many fine roots; 10 percent rock fragments; moderately acid; abrupt irregular boundary. (0 to 9 inches thick.)

B/E-- 17 to 24 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/3) gravelly loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; interfingering of E material surrounding some vertical faces of peds 1 to 2 millimeters thick, that constitutes less than 15 percent of the layer; clay films lining some pores with thin patchy clay films on some faces of peds; few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation within the matrix; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick.)

Bt-- 24 to 36 inches, reddish brown (5YR 4/3) gravelly loam; moderate medium subangular block structure; firm; common clay films on all faces of peds and on surfaces along pores; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) masses of iron accumulation and common fine distinct pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) areas of iron depletion within the lower few inches of the horizon; 20 percent gravel; neutral; clear wavy boundary. (8 to 22 inches thick.)

C1-- 36 to 54 inches, reddish brown (5YR 5/3) gravelly loam; moderate medium plate like divisions; firm; 20 percent rock fragments; slightly alkaline, slightly effervescent.

C2-- 54 to 72 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/3) gravelly loam; massive; firm; 20 percent rock fragments; moderately alkaline, strongly effervescent.

TYPE LOCATION: Genesee County, New York, Town of Byron, 2 miles east of the village of Byron, 700 feet west of Swamp Road and Hessenthaler Road, 150 feet south of Swamp Road. USGS Byron, NY topographic quadrangle; Latitude 43 degrees, 05 minutes, 16 seconds N. and Longitude 78 degrees, 01 minutes, 45 seconds W. NAD 1927.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The solum thickness ranges from 29 to 48 inches. Depth to carbonates ranges from 29 to 48 inches. Depth to bedrock is more than 60 inches. Rock fragments range from 5 to 25 percent in the solum and substratum and, in many pedons, the percentage increases with depth.

The Ap horizon ranges from very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) to brown (7.5YR 5/2), from fine sandy loam through light silt loam. Unless limed, reaction ranges from strongly to slightly acid.

The E horizon and its interfingering among peds in the top of B extend to a depth ranging from 13 to 20 inches. The E ranges from yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) to dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2) and typically mottled. Texture is fine sandy loam or loam. Structure is platy or weak fine blocky, or it is massive. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.

The B/E horizon has colors and textures similar to the Bt and E horizons respectively. Structure is weak or moderate, medium or fine subangular blocky. Consistence is friable or firm. Redoximorphic features may be present. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral.

The Bt horizons range from dark brown (10YR 4/3) to reddish brown (2.5YR 5/4) and contains redoximorphic features. Texture is fine sandy loam or loam containing 18 to 27 percent clay, with individual subhorizons ranging from 15 to 35 percent clay. Structure is moderate or strong medium or coarse blocky. Consistence is firm. Reaction ranges from moderately acid to neutral. Clay films are present on peds and as pore linings and are most abundant in the lower part.

The C or Cd horizon is firm or very firm dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) to reddish brown (5YR 5/4) loam or fine sandy loam. The horizon is massive or has thick plate like divisions. It is slightly to strongly effervescent.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Adamstown, Beech, Blakeslee, Cazenovia, El Dara, Funkstown, Kidami, Lima, Miami, Pevely, Rainsville, Rawson, Richland, Shawtown, Summitville, and Vaughnsville series in the same family. Adamstown, Kidami, Miami, and Rainsville have lithologic discontinuities within 20 inches of the surface. Beech soils do not have carbonates within 80 inches. Blakeslee, Rawson, Shawtown, and Vaughnsville are formed in outwash and other stratified materials. Cazenovia soils have 28 to 35 percent clay in the control section. El Dara soils are formed in Cretaceous deposits. Funkstown soils have limestone residuum below a depth of 25 inches. Lima soils have shallower solum and shallower depth to carbonates, also the depth to the Bt horizon is within 29 inches. Pevely soils have a lithic contact within a depth of 40 inches. Summitville soils have a paralithic contact between 40 and 80 inches.

The Aurora, Conesus, Danley, Honeoye, Lansing, Ontario, Nunda, Wampsville, and Wassaic are series in similar families. Aurora and Wassaic soils have bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. Conesus, Danley and Nunda soils have 2 chroma redox depletions in the argillic horizon. Honeoye, Lansing, and Ontario soils lack the high-chroma concentrations typical of the Bt horizon of Hilton soils. Wampsville soils are stratified in the lower part of the series control section.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Nearly level to undulating area of till plains. Slope gradients are mainly 1 to 8 percent, but range from 0 to 15 percent. The regolith is fine sandy loam to loam calcareous till of Wisconsin age, derived principally from sandstone and limestone. Mean annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 42 inches; mean annual air temperature from 47 to 50 degrees F.; mean growing season from 150 to 200 days.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: Appleton, Lyons, and Ontario series are catenary associates. Collamer, Niagara, Wallington and Williamson soils are in associated silty deposits of glacial lakes. Alton and Palmyra soils occur on associated glacial outwash deposits; Arkport and Colonie, on associated sandy deltas.

DRAINAGE AND SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY: Moderately well drained. The potential for surface runoff is very low to medium. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is moderately high or high in the mineral solum and moderately high to low in the substratum.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are farmed, crops including vegetables, deciduous fruit, corn, wheat, oats and hay. Existing woodlots have red and white oak, hickory, sugar maple, black cherry, black walnut and associated species.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Ontario lowlands of western New York and locally in the Mohawk Valley. MLRA 101. Hilton is an extensive to very extensive soil.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Orleans County, New York, 1932.

REMARKS: A new pedon from Genesee County was used because the typical pedon does not match the typical pedon for Hilton in the Monroe County, NY Soil Survey. After a review of the use of the Hilton and Lima series the range of the solum depth of Hilton is changed to 29 to 48 and the competing series section was updated.

Diagnostic horizons and other features recognized in the typical pedon are:
1. Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 9 inches (Ap horizon).
2. Albic horizon - the zone from 9 to 17 inches (E horizon).
3. Argillic horizon - the zone from 17 to 36 inches below the soil surface (B/E and Bt horizons).

National Cooperative Soil Survey