Established Series


The Nodine series consists of deep, well drained soils formed in a thin mantle of loess and the underlying stratified pedisediments derived from the erosion of weathered sandstone, shale, or limestone. These soils are on summits and upper side slopes of dissected uplands. These soils are moderately permeable. Their slopes range from 3 to 20 percent. Mean annual temperature is about 49 degrees F,and mean annual precipitation is about 31 inches.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalfs

TYPICAL PEDON: Nodine silt loam with an 8 percent convex northeast-facing slope in the uplands in a hayfield. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap--0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) dry; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; neutral; clear smooth boundary. (5 to 10 inches thick)

BE--7 to 10 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam with a few masses and coatings of peds of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2); weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 10 inches thick)

2Bt--10 to 60 inches; stratified yellowish brown (10YR 5/4), (10YR 5/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR 4/6) clay, clay loam, sandy clay loam, sandy loam, and loamy sand; weak and moderate medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; very friable through firm; about 5 percent coarse fragments; few thin black (10YR 2/1) coatings on faces of peds; few thin discontinuous clay films on faces of peds mostly in loamy and clayey parts; strongly acid.

TYPE LOCATION: Houston County, Minnesota; about two miles east of Hokah; about 1,525 feet west and 400 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 3, T. 103 N., R. 4 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of solum is greater than 60 inches. Depth to free carbonates and bedrock typically is 60 to 90 inches but ranges to as much as 120 inches or more. The loess mantle is 5 to 20 inches thick. The content of coarse fragments ranges from 0 to 5 percent in the loess mantle and 5 to 35 percent in the underlying material. The coarse fragments are mostly chert and sandstone. Individual subhorizons within and below the control section to depths of 60 inches have between 2 and 60 percent clay and 30 to 95 percent sand.

The Ap horizon has value of 3 or 4, 6 or more dry; and chroma of 2 or 3. Uncultivated pedons have an A horizon ranging from 2 to 4 inches in thickness andan E horizon ranging from 3 to 7 inches in thickness. A thin E horizon is in some cultivated pedons. The A horizon has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 1 or 2. The A horizon has value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 2 or 3. The A and E horizons are medium acid through neutral. The B horizon in the upper sediment has chroma of 3 or 4. It is strongly through slightly acid.

The 2B horizon is stratified in both color and texture. Individual strata range from less than 1 to 20 inches thick. It has hue ranging from 2.5YR through 10YR. It has value and chroma ranging from 4 through 7. It has dominant texture of sandy clay loam, clay loam, and sandy loam, but it has sandy and clayey interstrata. In some pedons some of the clay strata are derived from shale. These have 5Y hue and value and chroma of 4 through 6. It is massive or has weakly expressed structure in the coarser textured parts and moderately or strongly expressed structure in the other parts. The upper 10 to 25 inches in many pedons have coatings of fine sand as much as 1/8 inch thick on ped faces. It is strongly acid through medium acid.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Belmont, Belmore, Cheanult, Chili, Coggon, Conestoga, Douds, El Dara, Gallman, Grellton, Hayden, Hebron, Hickory, High Gap, Hollinger, Kalamazoo, Kanawha, Kendallville, Kidder, Kosciusko, LeRoy, Letort, Lindley, Mandeville, Martinville, McHenry, Miami, Mifflin, Military, Norden, Ockley, Owosso, Pecatonica, Princeton, Rawson, Relay, Renova, Richland, Riddles, Rockbridge, Roseville, Sisson, Strawn, Summitville, Teanaway, Theresa, Wawasee, Westville, Whalan, and Woodbine series in the same family and the Blackhammer, Dubuque, and Rollingstone series. Belmont, Dubuque, High Gap, Mandeville, Mifflin, Military, Norden, Roseville, Whalan, and Woodbine soils have a lithic or paralithic contact within 60 inches. Belmore, Chili, Gallman, Kalamazoo, Kosciusko, and Ockley soils have lower B and C horizons formed in sandy and gravelly materials. The Chenault, Hollinger, Kanawha, Letort, Relay, and Teanaway soils have a warmer and/or more moist climate. Coggon, Conestoga, Hayden, Hebron, Hickory, Kendallville, Kidder, LeRoy, Lindley, Miami, Owosso, Pecatonica, Rawson, Renova, Richland, Strawn, Summitville, Theresa, Wawasee, and Westville soils lack distinct stratification in the Bt horizon. Douds and Martinville soils formed in glacial outwash. El Dara soils contain fewer coarse fragments in the lower B and C horizons. Grellton soils have a silty 2B horizon and free carbonates within 60 inches. McHenry soils formed in loamy sediments and glacial till. Princeton soils formed in eolian sediments. Riddles soils formed in glacial till. Rockbridge soils have formed in silty sediments over gravelly alluvium. It has a thinner solum and contains more coarse fragments. Sisson soils have a less acid solum and have free carbonates within 60 inches. Blackhammer soils have a thicker loess mantle. Rollingstone soils have a clayey 2B horizon.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Nodine soils have convex slopes with gradient of 3 to 20 percent on summits and upper parts of hill slopes in dissected uplands. They formed in a 5 to 20 inch thick loess mantle and in stratified pedisediments derived from the erosion of weathered sandstone, shale, or limestone. Mean annual temperature ranges from 47 to 52 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is 28 to 34 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Blackhammer, Lamoille, Rollingstone, Seaton, and Southridge soils. Blackhammer, Rollingstone, and Southridge soils have landscapes similar to Nodine soils but Southridge soils have a clayey 2B horizon. Lamoille soils are downslope, have thinner sola, and contain more coarse fragments. Seaton soils formed entirely in loess and are on summits.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Runoff is medium to very rapid. Permeability is moderate.

USE AND VEGETATION: Nodine soils with less than 12 percent slopes are mostly cropped to corn, small grains, and hay. More sloping Nodine soils are used for growing trees and pasture. Native vegetation was deciduous forest with white and red oaks, hickory, and basswood being the more common species.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Southeastern Minnesota, and possibly northeastern Iowa, southwestern Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois. The series is of moderate extent.


SERIES ESTABLISHED: Houston County, Minnesota, 1981.

REMARKS: Most of these soils formerly were mapped as Dubuque shallow phase.

National Cooperative Soil Survey